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Chickens Are Omnivores: It’s No Dilemma PDF Print E-mail
Written by Matt Rales   
Tuesday, 29 June 2010 14:47

One of the points I always try to convey when I host farm tours at Polyface Farm is that chickens are omnivores. Visitors have no problem with the fact that pastured poultry eat lots of green grass, herbs and clover, but cringe at the notion that these beautiful, healthy birds also supplement their diet with plenty of animal foods as well. In the green season, the birds eat lots of grasshoppers and fly larvae (out of the cow pies).

But what happens when the chickens go indoors for the winter, and insect life is all but nonexistent except for the occasional pill bug and spider in the deep bedding material? Traditionally this is when farm flocks were supplemented with vermin, cut open for easier access to the internal organs. Chickens gladly and voraciously tear at the flesh and guts of a freshly shot groundhog, opossum or raccoon. Chickens have a featherless face for a reason—it is easier to keep clean after indulging in flesh. We see the same physiology in wild avian scavengers like vultures.

NATURAL OMNIVORES

Large-scale organic and free-range egg producers love to advertise the “vegetarian-fed” status of their birds. Certainly, a vegetarian-fed chicken does not have access to insects or it would lose the privilege of this label. We can also assume that no access to insects means no access to pasture, little to no access to the outdoors, or, worst of all, continuous confinement.

Unfortunately, the vegetarian feeding regimen of organic and free-range poultry induces a paler, weaker egg yolk than their omnivorous, beyond-organic counterparts. There is absolutely nothing natural about a vegetarian-fed chicken, and to be sure, the nutrient profile of eggs and meat from birds fed this way is going to be far inferior to birds with access to insects and meat scraps. Traditional farm flocks were often kept solely to consume the family’s kitchen waste— much of which was meat and scraps of fat.

I recently bought two hundred Rhode Island Red pullets for my farm in Potomac, Maryland and began feeding them a local, custom blended mix of corn, soybeans, oats, Fertrell’s Nutri-Balancer for poultry, and some fishmeal for extra protein. The grind was a bit coarse for starting chicks, and the mill could not ensure that the ingredients were GMO-free. The local certified organic mill was charging fifty cents per pound, and I wanted to offer eggs to my customers that were under five dollars per dozen. So I went with the cheaper feed option.

Within two weeks the chicks were beginning to eat each other. The more aggressive chicks were tearing at the weaker ones from the outside in, and fifty percent of the batch had bleeding tails from being picked at. I tried crushing the feed to a finer consistency, thinking that the pieces were too large for the chicks to ingest and digest well, but they continued to cannibalize.

When I originally placed my feed order, I had asked for roasted soybeans. Roasting neutralizes many of the nutrient and growth inhibitors in soybeans and makes the protein more available—essential for growing chicks. But by my own personal taste-test and the pale softness of the bean, it was apparent that they had not been roasted. Luckily, it was mid December and the whitetail rut was in full swing. Suburban roads in Maryland this time of year are lined with deer carcasses. I picked up a fresh one, skinned it and began tossing small pieces to my chicks. They went crazy. This one carcass lasted me about a week—enough time to get down to Sunrise Farms in Stuarts Draft, Virginia for a GMO-free broiler ration with roasted soybeans. Problem solved. The deer meat put the chicks back on track within hours and they continued to mature beautifully.

FERMENTED GREENS BETTER THAN FRESH

The only thing better than fresh green forage for poultry is fermented green forage. This can come in the form of any herbivore’s manure, but ruminant manure is by far the best because the pre-digested forage comes slathered with so many digestive enzymes. We see the same principles and benefits of fermentation at work for these avian omnivores as we witness in people who consume lacto-fermented vegetables and grains. The telltale sign that the fermented greens are beneficial is a bright, tall egg yolk from a layer, or a deep yellow bundle of kidney fat in the cavity of a broiler. Don’t cut this away!

Another wonderful relationship is raising laying hens under rabbit hutches. The hens indulge in a portion of the fermented alfalfa pellets (rabbit manure) and scratch the rest into the carbonaceous bedding creating a superfine, blended compost. Just add water, and you will create heaven for red-wiggler worms. Of course, the grass growth to follow an application of rabbit-chicken bedding is nothing short of luxuriant. With the spreading of such rich and balanced material on a pasture, we can create bumper crops of hay, or a standing forage bank to get the cows through a late summer drought.

FOR INDOOR CHICKENS, DEEP BEDDING IS ESSENTIAL

Proficient composters know that a compost pile must achieve a certain mass in order to heat up and activate. The same is true for the bedding beneath your chickens. The most common mistake people make when keeping poultry indoors for the winter or otherwise is settling for a bedding pack that is too shallow. There is simply not enough carbon to absorb the accumulation of manure, and the material will never begin to decay effectively. At worst, the bedding will begin to smell and will fail to trap and suspend nutrients.

The goal in an indoor setting is to “grow” some of the protein for the birds in the bedding. We achieve this through creating the right conditions for the bugs—an “if you build it they will come” type of scenario—which is a carbon to nitrogen ratio of twenty-five to one. When this ideal medium is achieved, the birds will begin to scratch out deep bowls in the bedding as they search for worms, centipedes, pillbugs and other organisms virtually invisible to the human eye, supplementing their diets with a diversity of animal protein, reducing our reliance on purchased protein, and creating a more nutrient-dense egg in the process.

 


SIDEBAR

Soybean Alternatives : Toward a Soy -Free Future


Let’s start thinking of creative ways to eliminate soybeans from the diets of our omnivorous livestock! Here are some options and alternatives to the soybean:


ROAD KILL AND SLAUGHTER WASTE : Ground-up, or even cut into small pieces, the meat and organs of these wild
ruminants is tremendously rich protein for poultry. On a larger scale, an on-farm mixer grinder equipped to crush bone might be a wise investment. The only impediment to scaling a system like this is a regulatory structure that discriminates against the on-farm handling of meat. Another option is utilizing the bones and trim from beef, lamb and goat carcasses. In many cases, this material can be brought back from the butcher and fed directly to the birds or put through the mixer grinder prior to feeding (making it easier to feed out of a trough and minimize waste).


EARTHWORMS : Mature compost piles are often filled with red wiggler worms. These can be harvested with sifting
equipment and fed live, directly to the birds. Industrial composting sites often sell these worms, but they can be created as easily as piling up woodchips and waiting six months.


COMFREY: One plant that deserves honorable mention is the highly proteinaceous herb called comfrey. The protein
content of dry comfrey is as high as the soybean, the portion fed is the green chlorophyll-rich leaf and it is perennial and self perpetuating, no tillage required. It also builds soil very rapidly by harvesting minerals with its deep root system.


SKIM MILK AND WHEY : There is hardly anything more synergistic than feeding skim milk and whey to hogs and chickens. This protein and mineral-rich byproduct of butter and cheese making is a complete food. From an economic standpoint it is win-win because the high value portion of the milk is marketed to the consumer without the expense in  disposing of the byproduct. Normally farmers or dairy processors pay a fee to get rid of it. As the synergy embedded in this system is leveraged on diversified farms around the nation, the recognized inefficiency of soybean production may well make this protein source obsolete.

 


 

This article appeared in Wise Traditions in Food, Farming and the Healing Arts, the quarterly journal of the Weston A. Price Foundation, Summer 2010.

About the Author

[authorbio:rales-matthew]

Comments (8)Add Comment
Old way of feeding chicken in Slovakia
written by Dagmar, Mar 03 2014
Yup, this is Exactly as our chicken were feed in Slovakia! All 500+ of them. Out, free, on the farm, green-pastures + eating all the scraps from our kitchen. Can guarantee you we didn't have any problems with organic "waste".
And people were bending all over themselves to get their hands on our orange-yolk (sometimes even 2-yolks) eggs. smilies/wink.gif

And yes, some people are still doing this in small villages in Slovakia.
Lucky chicken! smilies/smiley.gif
Black Soldier Fly Larvae
written by Georgia, Feb 13 2014
Keeping Black Soldier Fly Larvae sounds like an easy and inexpensive way to grow protein for chickens. They'll eat compost and multiply rapidly. In my climate (Pacific Northwest) I'd probably need to keep them indoors, as they're a tropical bug. I've been learning all about them and am planning to try them when I can get an indoor setup going.

http://blacksoldierflyblog.com/bsf-basics/
Roadkill...
written by Paulr R, Mar 23 2012
BC. Chickens aren't so much omnivores if the opportunity presents itself. They are omnivores, scavenging ones. Your comment about 'parasite ridden road kill' belies your knowledge of the pastoral environment. A healthy rabbit or deer carcass is fine to feed to the chickens, maggots, grubs and worms are fine for them to find in the field (indeed it's the bulk of their natural diet) but you fear a 'parasite' ridden carcass? though that is exactly the sum of their diet in that context. It is virtually impossible for a disease to pass from a dead mammal to a chicken and subsequently infect a human, especially when the chicken is slaughtered in a properly approved facility. If the meat is too rotten the chickens won't touch it but will happily feed on the grubs and worms which are returning that carcass to the soil. This is a wonderful holistic regime the author describes for his livestock, and will result in health animals, and subsequently healthy and happy customers. smilies/smiley.gif
Little dinosaurs
written by CateK, Jun 05 2011
Having kept a small flock of chickens for family use, I can tell you that they are, in my opinion, small dinosaurs. Think raptors. They eat just about anything. I've even seen them run down and kill and eat a mouse that was dumb enough to enter their yard trying to get at some grain I'd put out for them. My chickens are not starving by any stretch, but they are meat eaters and I agree the whole vegetarian chicken thing some commercial producers are touting now is just nonsense.
Another solution for adding protein to chicken diet
written by SooperDooperCoops, Nov 28 2010
smilies/grin.gif Hi guys ~ Great information.

I raise chickens called Silkies. The chicken breeder that I most admire leads the nation with his birds because of their quality, beauty and personality. One of the problems with a large chicken operation that does not provide meat for the markets is the amount of culls that cannot be sold or even given away. One day he killed the unwanted cockrels and tossed them into the wood chipper, subsequently providing protein for the diet. The radiant health of the chickens was obvious.

I am hesitant over feeding chickens to chickens, thinking about Mad Cow Disease where cow protein is fed to cows. But, it solved two problems. I simply cannot do that, but many others can.
smilies/cool.gif
Wendy at SooperDooperCoops
...
written by Dee Jay, Sep 26 2010
I have no trouble with chickens eating roadkill. Their bodies will process it into delicious chicken flesh, much tastier than gmo-corn-fed chickens.
Roadkill thought
written by Mara, Aug 17 2010
"Parasite ridden" is your strongest argument.

Road kill by definition is killed by a car not disease.
So unless the carcass was sitting there a while, which it would start to stink so badly that no human would dare try to transport it to the chickens ... it would not be "parasite ridden" yet.


Believe it or not but my brother killed a deer with his car and felt so bad - he did not want the animals body to be wasted because of him. Therefor he brought the deer home and cooked it. Then he ate.
So, my point is if its a fresh "road kill" its probably healthier than the average animal product Americans put in their body every day.

The farmer advertised the chickens as pasture-fed. Does that mean he keeps them from eating what they need (insects etc.) Because they do not GROW in the pasture.
What is wrong then with bringing in outside sources. I'm sure the farmers bring in some vegetation from outside sources.
Chickens also love a big juicy kill of their own. Haven't you ever seen a chicken catch a mouse or lizard and have such fun at with that treat!

Education is key my friend if every one had some they would not be miss-led. Perhaps they should go ask a real chicken farmer what pasture-fed means. And if you still want a vegetarian egg go buy the traditional confined layer eggs and try to feel good about that!
Roadkill?
written by BC, Jul 13 2010
The suggestion at the end of the article to feed the chickens roadkill makes me nervous. I see what the author is saying about chickens being omnivores if given the opportunity, but if the farmer is advertising the chickens as pasture-fed, I don't think it is fair to the consumer to purposely feed them waste. After experiencing the health problems I have and gaining the knowledge that I am gaining, I want to be very careful what I put into my body-I don't feel very confident about eating chickens who have fed on parasite-ridden roadkill. Thoughts???

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Last Updated on Friday, 30 March 2012 20:27