Know Your Fats Introduction

Confused About Fats?

The following nutrient-rich traditional fats have nourished healthy population groups for thousands of years:

For Cooking

  • Butter
  • Tallow and suet from beef and lamb
  • Lard from pigs
  • Chicken, goose and duck fat
  • Coconut, palm and palm kernel oils

For Salads

  • Extra virgin olive oil (also OK for cooking)
  • Expeller-expressed sesame and peanut oils
  • Expeller-expressed flax oil (in small amounts)

For Fat-Soluble Vitamins

  • Fish liver oils such as cod liver oil (preferable to fish oils, which do not provide fat-soluble vitamins, can cause an overdose of unsaturated fatty acids and usually come from farmed fish.)

The following newfangled fats can cause cancer, heart disease, immune system dysfunction, sterility, learning disabilities, growth problems and osteoporosis:

  • All hydrogenated and partially hydrogenated oils
  • Industrially processed liquid oils such as soy, corn, safflower, cottonseed and canola
  • Fats and oils (especially vegetable oils) heated to very high temperatures in processing and frying.

The Many Roles of Saturated Fat

Saturated fats, such as butter, meat fats, coconut oil and palm oil, tend to be solid at room temperature. According to conventional nutritional dogma, these traditional fats are to blame for most of our modern diseases–heart disease, cancer, obesity, diabetes, malfunction of cell membranes and even nervous disorders like multiple sclerosis. However, many scientific studies indicate that it is processed liquid vegetable oil–which is laden with free radicals formed during processing–and artificially hardened vegetable oil–called trans fat–that are the culprits in these modern conditions, not natural saturated fats.

Humans need saturated fats because we are warm blooded. Our bodies do not function at room temperature, but at a tropical temperature. Saturated fats provide the appropriate stiffness and structure to our cell membranes and tissues. When we consume a lot of liquid unsaturated oils, our cell membranes do not have structural integrity to function properly, they become too “floppy,” and when we consume a lot of trans fat, which is not as soft as saturated fats at body temperature, our cell membranes become too “stiff.”

Contrary to the accepted view, which is not scientifically based, saturated fats do not clog arteries or cause heart disease. In fact, the preferred food for the heart is saturated fat; and saturated fats lower a substance called Lp(a), which is a very accurate marker for proneness to heart disease.

Saturated fats play many important roles in the body chemistry. They strengthen the immune system and are involved in inter-cellular communication, which means they protect us against cancer. They help the receptors on our cell membranes work properly, including receptors for insulin, thereby protecting us against diabetes. The lungs cannot function without saturated fats, which is why children given butter and full-fat milk have much less asthma than children given reduced-fat milk and margarine. Saturated fats are also involved in kidney function and hormone production.

Saturated fats are required for the nervous system to function properly, and over half the fat in the brain is saturated. Saturated fats also help suppress inflammation. Finally, saturated animal fats carry the vital fat-soluble vitamins A, D and K2, which we we need in large amounts to be healthy.

Human beings have been consuming saturated fats from animals products, milk products and the tropical oils for thousands of years; it is the advent of modern processed vegetable oil that is associated with the epidemic of modern degenerative disease, not the consumption of saturated fats.

The Fat-Soluble Activators

The crux of Dr. Price’s research has to do with what he called the “fat-soluble activators,” vitamins found in the fats and organ meats of grass-fed animals and in certain seafoods, such as fish eggs, shellfish, oily fish and fish liver oil. The three fat-soluble activators are vitamin A, vitamin D and a nutrient he referred to as Activator X, now considered to be vitamin K2, the animal form of vitamin K. In traditional diets, levels of these key nutrients were about ten times higher than levels in diets based on the foods of modern commerce, containing sugar, white flour and vegetable oil. Dr. Price referred to these vitamins as activators because they serve as the catalysts for mineral absorption. Without them, minerals cannot by used by the body, no matter how plentiful they may be in the diet.

Modern research completely validates the findings of Dr. Price. We now know that vitamin A is vital for mineral and protein metabolism, the prevention of birth defects, the optimum development of infants and children, protection against infection, the production of stress and sex hormones, thyroid function, and healthy eyes, skin and bones. Vitamin A is depleted by stress, infection, fever, heavy exercise, exposure to pesticides and industrial chemicals, and excess protein consumption (hence our warnings against the consumption of excess protein in the form of lean meat, lowfat milk and protein powders.)

Modern research has also revealed the many roles played by vitamin D, which is needed for mineral metabolism, healthy bones and nervous system, muscle tone, reproductive health, insulin production, protection against depression, and protection against chronic diseases like cancer and heart disease.

Vitamin K plays an important role in growth and facial development, normal reproduction, development of healthy bones and teeth, protection against calcification and inflammation of the arteries, myelin synthesis and learning capacity.

Modern health literature is rife with misinformation about the fat-soluble vitamins. Many health writers claim that humans can obtain adequate vitamin A from plant foods. But the carotenes in plant foods are not true vitamin A. Instead, they serve as precursors that are converted into vitamin A in the small intestine. Human beings are not good converters of vitamin A, especially as infants or whenthey suffer from diabetes, thyroid problems or intestinal disorders. Thus, for optimal health, humans require animal foods containing liberal amounts of vitamin A. Similarly, many claim that adequate vitamin D can be obtained from a short daily exposure to sunlight. But the body only makes vitamin D when the sun is directly overhead, that is, in the summer months, during midday. For most of the year (and even in the summer for those who do not make a practice of sunbathing), humans must obtain vitamin D from foods. As for vitamin K, most health books mention only its role in blood clotting, without recognizing the many other vital roles played by this nutrient.

Vitamins A, D and K work synergistically. Vitamins A and D tell cells to make certain proteins; after the cellular enzymes make these proteins, they are activated by vitamin K. This synergy explains reports of toxicity from taking vitamins A, D or K in isolation. All three of these nutrients must come together in the diet or the body will develop deficiencies in the missing activators.

The vital roles of these fat-soluble vitamins and the high levels found in the diets of healthy traditional peoples confirm the importance of pasture-feeding livestock. If domestic animals are not consuming green grass, vitamins A and K will be largely missing from their fat, organ meats, butterfat and egg yolks; if the animals are not raised in the sunlight, vitamin D will be largely missing from these foods.

Because it is so difficult to obtain adequate fat-soluble activators in the modern diet, Dr. Price recommended cod liver oil to provide vitamins A and D, along with a source of vitamin K, such as butter from grass-fed animals or what he called high-vitamin butter oil, made by low-temperature centrifuging of butter from cows eating rapidly growing grass. Consumed in liberal amounts during pregnancy, lactation and the period of growth, these nutrients ensure the optimal physical and mental development of children; consumed by adults, these nutrients protect against acute and chronic disease.

It is important to choose cod liver oil with care as many brands contain very little vitamin D, with potential toxicity of vitamin A. For recommended brands see Cod Liver Oil Basics & Recommendations.

Sally Fallon Morell is the founding president of the Weston A. Price Foundation and founder of A Campaign for Real Milk. She is the author of the best-selling cookbook, Nourishing Traditions (with Mary G. Enig, PhD) and the Nourishing Traditions Book of Baby & Child Care (with Thomas S. Cowan, MD). She is also the author of Nourishing Broth (with Kaayla T. Daniel, PhD, CCN).

13 Responses to Know Your Fats Introduction

  1. marty Pearson says:

    multiple sclerosis
    hello Sally, could you point me to some good info on multiple sclerosis, i know several sufferers who are very keen to hear your suggestions for some relief/improvement.

  2. Jan Ilch says:


    I to am looking for suggestions regarding multiple sclerosis and mineral obsorption. I would so appreciate your input. I was just intoduced to this website and was very impressed!

  3. Tini Lorey says:

    Another MS-Request
    Hello Sally,

    just as the posts above me I am searching for an article or other source about dietary treatment of multiple sclerosis. My mom is affected, but she is also stubborn, so I thought an article from someone with a lot of titles is the only thing which would make impression on her smilies/smiley.gif

    This foundation is great!

    Thanks for your consideration!!


  4. Jonathan says:

    @ Multiple Sclerosis
    From the information I have gathered from the WAPF’s publications, it seems that the primary nutrient required to fight multiple sclerosis is vitamin D.

    I would also assume that saturated fat, cholesterol and all vitamins would also help, for their beneficial effects in the brain and their antioxidant properties. The minerals calcium, magnesium, sodium copper, manganese, selenium and zinc might also be useful for their various roles within the body, particularly in maintaining the nervous system.

  5. Peter F. says:

    I would like to know if there is available research supporting your statement that saturated fats reduce Lp(a)?
    Thank you.

  6. Maria da Graça Costa says:

    Gostaria de saber o que fazer para baixar os meus triglicerideos,tenho 237, quando o valor máximo são 150.Tenho 52 anos de idade,fiz esterectomia há 9 anos passando a ser hipertensa. Faço medicação diária. Se puder, agradeço que me responda. Obrigado. Maria da Graça

  7. jemmy says:

    i think that i should thank you for this inspiring page.
    congratulations on becoming my new favourite website.

  8. XYZ says:

    Can yow show us where did you get the sources from? “according to scientific studies”. I am doubting what you say, but what you state should be backed by sources.

  9. Steven Desantis says:

    Sally, your foundation is an inspiration to us all. I follow your methodologies, along with Dr Mercola, Paul Chek and many other professionals.
    It is a shame that there are still many others out there that still dont believe the truth about saturated fats. Shame on them.

  10. Lisa T says:

    For Those Interested In A Diet For Multiple Sclerosis
    Please take a look at the Wahls Diet created by Terry Wahls.
    An inspiring story for those with MS.

  11. ANNIE WATERS says:

    Chicken Fat?
    I am having a hard time finding specifics on chicken fat – what are the benefits, nutrition, etc? 😮

  12. Fiona says:

    MS + good reads
    I have Sally’s book Nourishing Traditions… If you’re after references get the book! Those with MS a good read was Primal Body Primal Mind by nora gedgaudas. My understanding of MS is the breakdown of the myelin sheaths that protect nerves and neural messages. The sheaths are made up of fat – starve the body of fat and the sheaths will degenerate quicker and won’t repair/ rebuild. The body needs fat for all neural processes

  13. Wilfrid says:

    Palm oil
    Hi everyone,

    Just want to add my opinion here regarding palm oil.
    Even if palm oil is 50% saturated fat, like pork fat, there is a biological subtlety linked to the distrubition of fatty acids in the 1,2 and 3 positions of the glycerol.
    The biodisponibility of a fatty acid is maximal when this one is linked to the position 2 of the glycerol.
    In Palm oil, like in cocoa butter, the unsaturated fatty acids are in the bioavailable position (position 2) whereas, for example, satured fatty acids occupy that position in lard.
    Palm oil as to be considered like an oil which is rich of unsaturated fatty acids like cocoa butter and not like a source of saturated fatty acids because, when ingested and after digestion, palm oil’s saturated fatty acids are mostly evacuated via the bowel due to their position (1 and 3) of the glycerol and their non utilisation by the body.
    And pork fat as to be considered like saturated fat when digested.

    Differences in the distributions of fatty acids among the positions of the glycerol moiety in triacylglycerols from natural fats and oils were first demonstrated systematically by enzymatic hydrolysis procedures, specifically pancreatic lipase hydrolysis for the analysis of the fatty acids of position sn-2 (regiospecific analysis), before complex stereospecific hydrolysis procedures were developed that permitted the complete positional distributions of the fatty acids to be determined. Because of this historical development of the analytical procedures, there has been a tendency to assume that the composition of fatty acids esterified to the sole secondary hydroxyl group must have greater importance than those of the two primary positions. It is certainly true that the composition of position sn-2 is of great importance when triacylglycerols are consumed and digested by animals, since 2-monoacyl-sn-glycerols are then formed which can be absorbed by the intestines and utilised as such.


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