Cod Liver Oil Basics and Recommendations

last updated November 18, 2016

Concerns about Fermented Cod Liver Oil

Questions and Answers About Fermented Cod Liver Oil

JUMP TO: Brand Recommendations – Updated 2016

Once a standard supplement in traditional European societies, cod liver oil provides fat-soluble vitamins A and D, which Dr. Price found present in the diet of primitives in amounts ten times higher than in modernized diets. Cod liver oil supplements are a must for women and their male partners, to be taken for several months before conception, and for women during pregnancy. Growing children will also benefit greatly from a small daily dose.

Cod liver oil is also rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docasahexaenoic acid (DHA). The body makes these fatty acids from omega-3 linolenic acid. EPA is as an important link in the chain of fatty acids that ultimately results in prostaglandins, localized tissue hormones while DHA is very important for the proper function of the brain and nervous system. Those individuals who have consumed large amounts of polyunsaturated oils, especially partially hydrogenated oils, who are suffering from certain nutrient deficiencies, or who have impaired pancreatic function, such as diabetics, may not be able to produce EPA and DHA and will, therefore, lack important prostaglandins and necessary fats for the brain unless they consume oily fish or take a cod liver oil supplement.

Buy cod liver oil in dark bottles and store in a cool, dark, dry place. Please read Vitamin A, Vitamin D, and Cod Liver Oil: Some Clarifications below for amounts to give to adults and children and for recommended brands. Cod liver oil is easy to take when stirred into a small amount of water or fresh juice.

Dr. Price always gave cod liver oil along with high-vitamin butter oil, extracted by centrifuge from good quality spring or fall butter. He found that cod liver oil on its own was relatively ineffective but combined with high vitamin butter oil produced excellent results. The butter oil contains what he called Activator X, now considered to be vitamin K2, which works synergistically with vitamins A and D (see Chris Masterjohn’s article “On the Trail of the Elusive X Factor: A Sixty-Year Old Mystery Finally Solved”). Your diet should include sources of vitamin K, such as good quality butter from grass-fed cows and/or high-vitamin butter oil, fat from grass-fed animals, cheeses from grass-fed animals and duck or goose liver, along with cod liver oil.

Vitamin A, Vitamin D & Cod Liver Oil: Some Clarifications

Several visitors to our website have noted inconsistencies in various statements about vitamin A, vitamin D and cod liver oil. These issues revolve around questions of dosage and safety.

Vitamin A Dosage

We have pointed out that concerns about vitamin A toxicity are exaggerated. While some forms of synthetic vitamin A found in supplements can be toxic at only moderately high doses, fat-soluble vitamin A naturally found in foods like cod liver oil, liver, and butterfat is safe at up to ten times the doses of water-soluble, solidified and emulsified vitamin A found in some supplements that produce toxicity.(1) Additionally, the vitamin D found in cod liver oil and butterfat from pasture-raised animals protects against vitamin A toxicity, and allows one to consume a much higher amount of vitamin A before it becomes toxic.(1-3) Liver from land mammals is high in vitamin A but low in vitamin D, and should therefore be consumed with other vitamin D-rich foods such as lard or bacon from pasture-raised pigs, egg yolks, and oily fish, or during months in which UV-B light is sufficient to provide one with adequate vitamin D.

As a general guideline, we recommend the following doses of vitamin A from cod liver oil, along with a nutrient-dense diet that contains other vitamin A-rich foods:

  • Children age 3 months to 12 years: A dose of cod liver oil that provides about 5000 IU vitamin A daily, obtained from about 1 teaspoon of regular cod liver oil or ½ teaspoon of high-vitamin cod liver oil.
  • Children over 12 years and adults: A maintenance dose of cod liver oil that provides about 10,000 IU vitamin A daily, obtained from 2 teaspoons of regular cod liver oil or 1 teaspoon of high-vitamin cod liver oil.
  • Pregnant and nursing women: A dose of cod liver oil that provides about 20,000 IU vitamin A daily, obtained from 4 teaspoons regular cod liver oil or 2 teaspoons high-vitamin cod liver oil.

Please note that these recommended doses are 2-5 times greater than the U.S. RDA for children, 4 times greater than the U.S. RDA for adults and 8 times greater than the U.S. RDA for pregnant women. The RDA values are based on studies conducted in the general population, which is now recognized to be largely deficient in vitamin D. For a discussion of studies showing that vitamin A consumption up to 30,000 IU per day by pregnant women does not result in a greater risk of birth defects, see Vitamin A for fetal development. This article also describes the vital role played by vitamin A in the development of the fetus. Pregnant women may wish to consult their health practitioner about taking cod liver oil during pregnancy.

Individuals under stress or wishing to use cod liver oil to treat a disease condition may take much larger doses, even up to doses providing 90,000 IU vitamin A per day, for a period of several weeks.

Vitamin D Dosage

Our recommended brands of cod liver oil (see below) will provide with the above recommended dosages for cod liver oil about 500-1000 IU vitamin D for children, 1000-2000 IU vitamin D for adults, 2000-4000 IU vitamin D for pregnant and nursing women and up to 9000-18,000 IU for those taking large amounts of cod liver oil to deal with stress and disease.

In 1997, the Food and Nutrition Board of the US Institute of Medicine set the tolerable upper intake level (TUIL) for vitamin D at 2000 IU per day. However, the vitamin D content experts on the Upper Limits Panel objected to this limit, and several prominent vitamin D researchers have called for an upward revision of the limit. Experiments show that even during the winter with a low vitamin D intake, humans will exhaust stores of vitamin D at a rate of 3000-4000 IU per day, an amount that many people require to maintain optimal levels of the vitamin in the blood. Extensive exposure to summer sun at mid latitudes naturally produces levels of vitamin D in the blood equivalent to what is attained by supplementing with a continued daily dose of 10,000 IU, suggesting humans are designed to tolerate such large amounts of vitamin D.(4)

If you are a lifeguard or spend a lot of time in the sun, you do not need to take supplemental vitamin D; however you still need to consume adequate vitamin A. Animal studies show that even moderate amounts of vitamin D increase the body’s need for vitamin A, whether the vitamin D is provided in the diet or by UV light (2,5). So, if you cut back or eliminate cod liver oil in the summer, be sure to consume plenty of oily fish, liver, butterfat and egg yolks from grass-fed hens to ensure adequate vitamin A.

For a discussion of Vitamin D Toxicity, see

This does not mean we do not recommend that some individuals have their vitamin D levels tested. Such testing can be very useful in determining vitamin D status and the effectiveness of cod liver oil or vitamin D supplements. Optimal serum vitamin D levels should be in the range of 30-50 ng/mL (see discussion at [link “Potential Dangers of Vitamin D, page 24 of Spring 2009]).

Brand Recommendations – Updated 2016

Most brands of cod liver oil go through a process that removes all of the natural vitamins. The resultant product contains very low levels of vitamin A and virtually no vitamin D. Some manufacturers add manufactured vitamins A and D to the purified cod liver oil and until recently, one manufacturer added the natural vitamins removed during processing back into the cod liver oil. Fortunately, we now have available in the U.S. a naturally produced, unheated, fermented high-vitamin cod liver oil that is made using a filtering process that retains the natural vitamins.

The high-vitamin fermented cod liver oil is sold as a food so does not contain vitamin levels on the label. However, after numerous tests, the approximate values of A and D have been ascertained at 1900 IU vitamin A per mL and 390 IU vitamin D per mL. Thus 1 teaspoon of high-vitamin fermented cod liver oil contains 9500 IU vitamin A and 1950 IU vitamin D, a ratio of about 5:1.

Based on these values, the dosage for the high-vitamin fermented cod liver oil is provided as follows:

  • Children age 3 months to 12 years: 1/2 teaspoon or 2.5 mL, providing 4750 IU vitamin A and 975 IU vitamin D.
  • Children over 12 years and adults: 1 teaspoon or 10 capsules, providing 9500 IU vitamin A and 1950 IU vitamin D.
  • Pregnant and nursing women: 2 teaspoons or 20 capsules, providing 19,000 IU vitamin A and 3900 IU vitamin D.

Please note that the fermented cod liver oil contains many co-factors that may enhance the body’s uptake and usage of vitamins A and D; in fact, many have reported results equivalent to those obtained from high-vitamin cod liver oil with half the recommended dose, that is ¼ teaspoon or 1.25 mL for children age 3 months to 12 years; ½ teaspoon or 5 capsules for children over 12 years and adults; and 1 teaspoon or 10 capsules for pregnant and nursing women.

As of 2016, we recommend the following brands of cod liver oil. Sources of high-vitamin fermented cod liver oil and high-vitamin cod liver oil with natural vitamins are in the BEST category; sources of processed cod liver oil with synthetic vitamins in the right proportions (ten or fewer units vitamin A to one unit vitamin D, and with at least 2,500 IU’s of vitamin A and 250 IU’s of vitamin D per teaspoon) are in the GOOD category. We do not recommend brands of cod liver oil that have low levels of vitamin A and/or low levels of vitamin D.

In the United States

BEST (Available Online/Mail Order):

GOOD (and available in Stores):

  • Carlson soft gel Cod Liver Oil Super 1,000 mg capsules
  • NOW Foods double strength Cod Liver Oil capsules
  • Pharmax Cod Liver Oil
  • Sonne’s Cod Liver Oil
  • Swanson double strength Cod Liver Oil capsules
  • Twin Labs non-emulsified liquid Cod Liver Oil

In Europe



In Russia


In Australia


In New Zealand


In Canada


In Hong Kong


Updates and More Information

Please read the following updates on Cod Liver Oil, published in December 2008:

Read more about Vitamin A and Vitamin D here:


  1. Myhre, et al., “Water-miscible, emulsified, and solid forms of retinol supplements are more toxic than oil-based preparations,” Am J Clin Nutr, 78 (2003) 1152-9.
  2. Aburto, et al., “The influence of Vitamin A on the Utilization and Amelioration of Toxicity of Cholecalciferol, 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol, and 1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol in Young Broiler Chickens,” Poultry Science, 77 (1998) 570-577.
  3. Metz, et al., “The Interaction of Dietary Vitamin A and Vitamin D Related to Skeletal Development in the Turkey Poult,” J. Nutr. 115 (1985) 929-935.
  4. Heaney, Robert P., “The Vitamin D requirement in health and disease,” Journal of Steroid Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, 97 (2005) 13-19.
  5. Aburto and Britton, “Effects of Different Levels of Vitamins A and E on the Utilization of Cholecalciferol by Broiler Chickens,” Poultry Science, 77 (1998) 570-577.
  6. Masterjohn, Chris, “Dioxins in Animal Foods: A Case for Vegetarianism,” October 17, 2005.

Sally Fallon Morell is the founding president of the Weston A. Price Foundation and founder of A Campaign for Real Milk. She is the author of the best-selling cookbook, Nourishing Traditions (with Mary G. Enig, PhD) and the Nourishing Traditions Book of Baby & Child Care (with Thomas S. Cowan, MD). She is also the author of Nourishing Broth (with Kaayla T. Daniel, PhD, CCN). ______________________________________________________________________________________________ Mary G. Enig, PhD, FACN, CNS, is an expert of international renown in the field of lipid chemistry. She has headed a number of studies on the content and effects of trans fatty acids in America and Israel and has successfully challenged government assertions that dietary animal fat causes cancer and heart disease. Recent scientific and media attention on the possible adverse health effects of trans fatty acids has brought increased attention to her work. She is a licensed nutritionist, certified by the Certification Board for Nutrition Specialists; a qualified expert witness; nutrition consultant to individuals, industry and state and federal governments; contributing editor to a number of scientific publications; Fellow of the American College of Nutrition; and President of the Maryland Nutritionists Association. She is the author of over 60 technical papers and presentations, as well as a popular lecturer. She is the author of Know Your Fats, a primer on the biochemistry of dietary fats as well as of Eat Fat Lose Fat (Penguin, Hudson Street Press, 2004). She is the mother of three healthy children.

374 Responses to Cod Liver Oil Basics and Recommendations

  1. James says:

    Vitamin D
    Above you have stated that 1 teaspoon of high-vitamin fermented cod liver oil contains 9500 IU vitamin A and 1950 IU vitamin D, a ratio of about 5:1. David Wetzel; however the manufacturer of the oil states in his April 30, 2009 update that the fermented oil contains 4,000 – 9,000 IU vitamin A per teaspoon and 3,000 – 4,000 IU vitamin D. Which is correct?

  2. Hannah says:

    I am very confused about conflicting information on this site regarding Vitamin D. I just read in a different article here that Vit. D can be toxic to some people in doses as low as 200-400 IU’s, but here such a higher dose is recommended. Should I not supplement with cod liver oil unless a D deficiency has been identified?

  3. Bonnie says:

    You forgot Garden of Life cod liver oil
    You have recommended Garden of Life Olde World Icelandic Cod Liver Oil in the past. I am guessing there has been a mistake since it is no longer on your list of recommendations.

  4. Tim Boyd says:

    No mistake. The ratio of vitamin A to D in Garden of Life CLO has changed (not enough D) so we can no longer recommend it.

    • Tim Boyd says:

      Since 2009 Garden of Life has changed back so that, last time I checked, the A to D ratio is OK now.

      • Kirsty says:

        does this require a full teaspoon or half a teaspoon ?

      • Sarah says:

        Thanks for the info! So, Garden of Life Cod Liver Oil is okay???? I’ve been giving it to my kiddos and want to make sure the ratios are okay now? Thanks!

        • Tim Boyd says:

          You can check the label and look at the numbers for vitamin A & D. If the number of IU of A is not more than 10 times the number of IU for vit. D then it is OK. Last time I checked, it was OK but they have been known to change from time to time.

  5. Rahsaan Chisolm says:

    Nordic Natural
    Hi. Would you please elaborate further why Nordic Natural Regular Cod Liver Oil is not recommended? Doesn’t the “D” version use synthetic Vitamin D. I ask, because as a black man living in New York City, I’m certain that my sun exposure is nowhere near would someone of my complexion would need to make enough Vitamin D. Currently, I drink about two large swigs a day from a bottle o Nordic Natural Regular Cod Liver Oil. Is that not optimal?

  6. meredith says:

    blue ice fermented cod liver/butter oil capsules
    the recommended dose on the bottle of blue ice fermented cod liver/butter oil capsules is 2 capsules per day. what are the appropriate doses for children, adults and pregnant women since i do not know how many capsules would be equivalent to a teaspoon…any guidance you can give would be greatly recommended!!

  7. Patricia Holborow says:

    Dr (PhD)
    2 questions
    1. Does shark liver oil contain the same vitamin A and D levels as cod liver oil?
    2. Do ordinary fish oil supplements contain vitamin A and D?

  8. Meg Paterson says:

    Why Carlson’s capsules and not the liquid?

  9. Stuart Tomc says:

    Oxidation is the key.
    Unfortunatly this review ignores the fact that marine based Omega 3 supplemnts must have very low levles of oxidative rancidity. Wild fish is not fremented, it’s fresh, and fresh fish has the power. We need to understand that rancidity in fish oil can be tested and is the best guideline for recomendations. I am a Dr. Price fan and he would agree!

  10. joan says:

    I take cod liver capw/1250IU of A and 135 IU of D-how much should I take daily?I read this can help to Alkaline ones body-true?

  11. marcia says:

    how can i see wapf’s responses to these comments and questions?

  12. Sean Moffett says:

    I see that the Green Pastures Blue Ice Royal fermented clo/butter oil blend contains silica. what is the benefit of a dietry intake of silica?

  13. Mary says:

    Green Pastures “Blue Ice” Fermented CLO
    Please advise. The above mentioned CLO appears to have more D than A and the non-fermented oil is no longer available. How much should we be taking of the fermented oil?

    Thank you,


  14. Linda Browne says:

    I have been reading concerns about vitamin K2 causing birth defects. Do you have any information on this.


  15. Karl says:

    Vitamin A toxicity
    I am wondering if just regular salmon oil and a good multivitamin might be better. Vitamin A toxicity is a nasty thing.

  16. dan says:

    Why not Salmon Oil????
    Hello all,

    I currently use salmon oil instead of cod liver oil, and I wondering why more people don’t as well? Is there a unique benefit to cod liver oil, that salmon oil does not contain? If so, could someone enlighten me as to the difference? Just for comparison purposes, I use Vital Choice’s 1,000mg Sockeye Salmon Oil. It is whole, unrefined, certified pure, and comes from wild Alaskan salmon. It contains (per serving): 240mgs EPA, 220 DHA, 340 IU of vitamin D, and 2,060 IU of vitamin A. The A & D are natural, not added. It seems comparable to the cod liver oils listed above, and I have a little more faith in the source. Am I missing something here? Thanks all.

  17. MARIA ELENA says:

    treatment with cod liver
    I would like to know which is the treatment with cold liver 1000mg softgel for adults and if there is any recommendations about adverse effects if it is taken for a long time. I take 75mg of levotiroxin diary could this be adverse? And in patients with diabetes is there any adverse effects or any recommendations for taken cold oil? Thanks in advance. Best regards. María Elena

  18. Elena says:

    Very confused about how I can view the responses to these posts or see the comment I just wrote… Can someone please help?

    • Sherri Dol says:

      I, too, would like to see the responses. A list of questions without responses is quite redundant.

      • Katherine (kenubekat) says:

        Hello Elena & Sherri Dol, did you get any response about seeing the replies to the questions people pose here?
        I’m especially interested in Dan’s (2/222010) Q in re Vital Choice’s 1,000mg Sockeye Salmon Oil — is that comparable to FCLO??
        I really wish SOMEONE would tell us where to see replies to these many questions!

        • Katherine (kenubekat) says:

          Oh… I just realized that to join this site or receive information requires a membership — a paid membership. Perhaps that’s why our questions don’t seem to be answered. We have to join to see the replies…?

  19. Elena says:

    Hello! Have you looked into Premier Research Labs and their Cod Liver Oil as well as many other supplements of highest quality? I haven’t seen them listed anywhere on your site and I think you may find this company to be a fantastic find. I have been using their products for several years now and find them to be of highest quality I have found so far. They are 100% excipient free… no silica in their cod liver oil either.

    • RICHARD says:


  20. Lee Pettit says:

    Hi can you recommend any brands in South Africa?

  21. K.R.Narasimhan says:

    Cod Liver Oil Basics and Recommendations
    Is it true that if you apply cod liver oil on the body of babies/children and make them stand in the sun for a few minutes , it will do good on vit. absorption ?

  22. EJ Whitman says:

    Melrose Cod Liver Oil in Australia
    It is my understanding, from talking directly with a Melrose representative, that the vitamins in Melrose brand CLO are synthetic. This is due to the high level of refining that takes place to meet regulations.

  23. Jill Nienhiser says:

    Comment from Sally Fallon on CLO with synthetic vitamins
    Sally asked me to post the following in response to some of the questions above asking about brands which replace naturally occurring vitamins with synthetic: “We have consistently pointed out that the vitamins in all but one brand of cod liver oil are synthetic. Only the fermented cod liver oil made in the United States contains the original natural vitamins. Every other brand of cod liver oil is definitely a compromise. But since many people cannot obtain or cannot afford the fermented cod liver oil, we recommend in the ‘good’ category (rather than the ‘best’ category), cod liver oil to which synthetic vitamins A and D have been added in the right proportions.”

  24. Carolyn Graff, Shopping Guide Coordinator says:

    CLO with synthetic vs. natural vitamins
    The Radiant Life Premier High-Vitamin Cod Liver Oil contains natural vitamins too (along with the fermented cod liver oil). This is listed in the ‘best’ category.

  25. JK says:

    Premier Quantum Norwegian Cod Liver Oil
    1) The recommended Radiant Life’s “Premier High-Vitamin Cod Liver Oil” is the same as “Premier Quantum Norwegian Cod Liver Oil” found in their website, right?
    Can’t find Premier High-Vitamin Cod Liver Oil in their website.

    2) This is listed in the ‘best’ category?

    3)Dose for children below 12 is half teaspoon?


  26. Carolyn Graff says:

    Premier Quantum Norwegian Cod Liver Oil
    Replies below ***

    1) The recommended Radiant Life’s “Premier High-Vitamin Cod Liver Oil” is the same as “Premier Quantum Norwegian Cod Liver Oil” found in their website, right?
    Can’t find Premier High-Vitamin Cod Liver Oil in their website.
    ***They are the same.

    2) This is listed in the ‘best’ category?
    ***Yes, in the best category.

    3)Dose for children below 12 is half teaspoon?
    ***That is the correct recommended dose.

  27. JK says:

    Cod Liver Oil & Butter Oil
    Thanks for your reply.

    (1) I am undecided on which to buy from Radiant. Is the fermented or the Premier Quantum Norwegian Cod Liver Oil
    better for children above 7 years old.

    (2) Is it necessary to also take it with the butter oil (as this is quite expensive)? If not, which is the alternative way to take the cod liver oil for better assimilation?


  28. Carolyn Graff says:

    Replies below ***

    (1) I am undecided on which to buy from Radiant. Is the fermented or the Premier Quantum Norwegian Cod Liver Oil
    better for children above 7 years old.
    ***The fermented is better for everyone.

    (2) Is it necessary to also take it with the butter oil (as this is quite expensive)? If not, which is the alternative way to take the cod liver oil for better assimilation?
    ***If you can’t afford the butter oil, take the CLO with deep yellow raw grassfed butter from the spring or fall.

  29. Kat Reeves says:


  30. Carolyn Graff says:

    You can not cook with cod liver oil due to the polyunsaturated fats it contains. Polyunsaturated oils should never be heated.

    Here is more info on fats

  31. Carolyn Graff says:

    this article explains how cod liver oil is produced

  32. Terri Egge says:

    Hi, I am about 8 weeks pregnant and I was taking fish oil, due to the article from Dr. Mercola, for the last several weeks. I ran out and came across your article. We are unable to afford the fermented oil, but I am wondering how much of the Twinlab Norwegian cod liver oil I should take.

    Thank you so much for all the information,

    Terri Egge

  33. Carolyn Graff says:

    from this page:…ions.html

    Pregnant and nursing women: A dose of cod liver oil that provides about 20,000 IU vitamin A daily, obtained from 4 teaspoons regular cod liver oil or 2 teaspoons high-vitamin cod liver oil.

    So, you would need to take 4 teaspoons of the Twin Labs CLO.

  34. Lisa Corwin says:

    Will coconut oil assist in the absorption of the nutrients in cod liver oil and would it make a good substitute for high vitamin butter oil?

  35. Carolyn Graff says:

    coconut oil
    this is from Sally:
    Coconut oil has many health properties but it does not contain the fat soluble activators A and D that are so valuable for nutrient assimilation.

  36. Laura says:

    I don’t see any of the Fermented Cod Liver Oil / Raw High Vitamin Butter Oil blends recommended. Do you feel that it is better to take these separately? If you feel that they are good, what dosages would you recommend?

  37. Carolyn M. Graff says:

    CLO/Butter oil blends
    These blends are fine to take. A dose that provides about 10,000 IU of vitamin A daily is recommended for adults.

  38. alim says:

    melrose cod liver oil
    Hi, I rang the Melrose CLO laboratory yesterday and was informed they “fortify” their product with synthetic Vit A and D.

  39. Carolyn M. Graff says:

    melrose cod liver oil
    Melrose does use synthetic vitamins. That is why they are listed under Good instead of Best.

    from a previous comment of Sally’s on March 3, 2010:
    “But since many people cannot obtain or cannot afford the fermented cod liver oil, we recommend in the ‘good’ category (rather than the ‘best’ category), cod liver oil to which synthetic vitamins A and D have been added in the right proportions.”

  40. Carolyn Graff says:

    weight loss
    I haven’t heard that cod liver oil would help with weight loss. Where did you read that? do you have any references?

  41. Jess says:

    I was told that cod liver oil will help me loose weight is that true?

  42. Wyandotte says:

    Regarding “not enough Vitamin D” in Garden of Life product. Personally, I think that would be a good choice for those of us who are in the hot sun, with arms & face exposed, for 6 months of the year. What’s your opinion?


  43. Jobert says:

    Comparing Carlsons liquid with fermented CLO/butter oil blend
    I first purchased Carlson’s liquid CLO with the lemon flavor, and after taking 1 teaspoon every day, I noticed improvements to my health within a couple of days: less stiffness, improved mental acuity, better oral health, no winter blues. I also bought the fermented CLO/butter oil blend from Green Pastures. I took 1/2 teaspoon per day of that for a couple of weeks, and many of the benefits I was experiencing with Carlson’s diminished–particularly the stiffness returned. Do you have any insight into why this is? Should I have taken a larger dose of the fermented kind, even though the label recommended 1/2 teaspoon per day? Thanks! (PS–for those of you concerned about the taste of the fermented CLO, try the cinnamon tingle gel. Tastes like cinnamon flavored jelly with no fishy taste.)

  44. Carolyn Graff says:

    “not enough Vitamin D” in Garden of Life product
    this is from Sally:
    A cod liver oil with low vitamin D and high vitamin A would indeed be appropriate in these circumstances; during the winter, however, cod liver oil with higher vitamin D content should be used.

  45. Carolyn Graff says:

    Comparing Carlsons liquid with fermented CLO/butter oil blend
    I would try taking at least a teaspoon of the fermented CLO/butter oil blend. WAPF recommends a teaspoon per day (for adults) of just the fermented CLO alone.

  46. Jane says:

    Vitamin A in CLO
    Hi Carolyn.

    A male friend has severe rheumatoid arthritis, and he is currently taking a high dose of Melrose fish oil. I have recommended to him that he take Carlson’s CLO for it’s additional benefit of Vitamin A – and this is the product I take and love. To get an equivalent high dose of EPA & DHA from CLO, this would mean 12 capsules a day, which is 24,000 IU of Vitamin A. Would this level of Vitamin A be safe for him to take on an ongoing basis?

    Many thanks

  47. Wyandotte says:

    Hi. Jess asked about C.L. Oil possibly being useful for weight loss, and someone replied that they had never heard this and were asking for a source. I stumbled onto this claim that CLO promotes weight loss here:

    This is an article by an acupuncture doctor.

  48. Carolyn Graff says:

    Vitamin A in CLO
    It would not be good to take 12 capsules of Carlson’s per day on an ongoing basis. You would be getting too many polyunsaturated oils. It would be better to get the A and D from the fermented cod liver oil (about 2 teaspoons) in order to minimize the intake of polyunsaturated oils.

  49. Wyandotte says:

    Further to Jess’ question re CLO promoting weight loss. I have not read this research, but it may possibly apply to her question:

    Ziouzenkova O, Orasanu G, Sharlach M, Akiyama TE, Berger JP, Viereck J, Hamilton JA, Tang G, Dolnikowski GG, Vogel S, Duester G, Plutzky J. Retinaldehyde represses adipogenesis and diet-induced obesity. Nat Med. 2007 Jun;13(6):695-702

  50. JK says:

    Is it better to take the:
    (1) “Blue Ice Fermented Cod Liver Oil” or the
    (2) “Blue Ice Butter Oil/Cod Liver Oil Blend”?
    For children, the dosage is half teaspoon whether they take the fermented or BO/CLO blend?

  51. Carolyn Graff says:

    Either one is fine to take. The dosage is as follows:

    Children age 3 months to 12 years: A dose of cod liver oil that provides about 5000 IU vitamin A daily.

    If taking the Blue Ice Butter Oil/Cod Liver Oil Blend, you would need more than a half teaspoon (1/2 to 1 teaspoon) since it also contains butter oil. If taking the Blue Ice Fermented Cod Liver Oil, you would need a half teaspoon. The Blend is 2/3 CLO and 1/3 butter oil.

    • Ann Hall says:

      The dose on the bottle of Blue Ice Butter Oil/Cod Liver Oil Blend says 1/2 tsp. On the Green Pasture
      website, it says: BLUE ICE™ Royal Butter Oil / Fermented Cod Liver Oil Blend

      As Dr. Weston A. Price indicated, It is not the High Vitamin Butter Oil or the Cod Liver Oil but rather the two together that did his patients good. This blend is 2/3 Blue Ice fermented Cod Liver Oil and 1/3 X-Factor High Vitamin Butter Oil.

      So I assumed this was better than the CLO alone.


  52. amana says:

    Been taking the cod liver oil and vitamin butter for about 4 days now. I have been feeling awful – is this what happens the first few days? I feel totally exhausted and weak and brain-fogged.

  53. Carolyn Graff says:

    this is from Chris Masterjohn:
    I can’t, off the top of my head, think of a reason why lack of
    saturated fat would cause CLO/BO to have such an effect, but if the
    person is not including butter and animal fat in their diet they might
    want to try including those foods. They may have an intolerance to
    something in one of the two supplements, but I think they’d have to
    use trial and error to decide what is causing the problem. Certainly
    if this continues for a few more days they should try removing one or
    the other and see if that helps.

  54. Khadija says:

    7 month old with Rickets
    Hi. I have a seven month old that was diagnosed with Rickets. he has lost a lot of weight, which we initially thought was due to a bout of the flu. He has been delayed in sitting up and now seems to have problems pushing himself up when on his stomach. His chest area also seems not to be growing in porportion to the rest of his body. The doc has him taking 5mil of a sryup that contains calcuim, vitamin d, and vitamin b, twice a day. I am also taking him out on the patio to sun in the afternoon. The suppliments don’t seemt o be working, so I am interested in Cod Liver Oil. My questions are:

    As it is summer, do I give him the oil, but not take him in the sun?

    Have you seen cod liver oil help to reverse severe rickets?

    How much/how often should the dose be for someone with rickets.

    I am in Cairo, but will have family visiting from the states in two weeks. I am hoping that I can get them to bring it with them.

    Thanks for your help.

  55. Carolyn Graff says:

    7 month old with Rickets
    this is from Sally:
    The child needs cod liver oil and a good source of calcium. Yes, fine to take cod liver oil and also be in the sun. 1/2-1 tsp Blue Ice cod liver oil per day, and the butter oil would also be good if you can afford it.

    For calcium, raw milk if you can get it. If not lots of bone broth. Also, the child should be getting butter, egg yolks, organ meats, etc. No sugar, no processed foods, no vegetable oils. Lots of lamb and lamb fat.

  56. T D Hollis says:

    CLO w High Vitamin Butter Oil
    My 23 yr old son complained of digestive issues and depression when taking the Green Pasture’s product. He tried this on a couple of different occasions with same result. Has anyone ever heard of this before? Would it be an indication of too much vitamin A &/or D?

  57. LP says:

    Vitamins/minerals MUST be taken with food
    I don’t see this mentioned anywhere here. Vitamin and mineral supplements MUST be taken with food, to be effective. And with enough water too.

    I have come across too many people who take vit/min supplements between meals or, worse, on an empty stomach. If you do this, you are not only not getting any benefits from the nutrients but also wasting your money.

    One example is a young 27yo woman I know, a ballet teacher (presumably she gets enough exercise), who suffers from chronic backache and sinusitis. Also, ALL of her fingernails are completely covered with white spots, a sign of severe zinc deficiency. When questioned, she said her regimen is to take a large CalMagZinc tablet with a glass of water in the morning before she rushes off to work. Yes, on an empty stomach, without any food at all!

    Ideally, vit/min supplements should be taken just after meals. Each meal should also be accompanied with at least 2 (or better 3) glasses of water and/or healthy liquids consumed within 3 hours of the meal. This is to help with proper digestion of the food and supplements.

    BTW, just for info, I have tried all kinds of vit/min supplements over the last 30 years. Time-release supplements do NOT work. The vits/mins need to be mixed with the food and liquids in the stomach before the ‘chyme’ passes into the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine, when the digestive enzymes get to work on it. Vits/mins released in the large intestines 6-8 hours later is useless.


  58. Carolyn Graff says:

    CLO w High Vitamin Butter Oil
    this is from Chris Masterjohn:
    I think the digestive problems are likely due to problems digesting
    the long-chain PUFAs. Did your son use the fermented product or
    the original product? Some people have reported digesting the
    fermented product better. The depression could, perhaps, be a result
    of a) not tolerating the product correctly (most apparently in this
    case, by not being able to digest it), b) too much EPA if the diet is
    otherwise poor in sources of AA such as butterfat or liver, or c)
    imbalances of one or the other fat-soluble vitamin. There could, of
    course, be other causes, but I would address them in that order. If
    the original product is being used, try the fermented product. If the
    fermented product is being used, try changing when it is consumed
    (e.g. with or without meals) or adding foods or supplements to help
    with fat digestion (e.g. enzymes or Swedish bitters).

  59. keirra says:

    fergmented cod liver
    Hey I can not take fermented cod liver oil, as it contains cows milk and I am allergic to it, I am in australia, what do I do?

  60. Carolyn Graff says:

    fermented cod liver oil
    The fermented cod liver oil does not contain cow’s milk.

  61. Gwen says:

    Cd Liver oil in France
    Hello, I live in Provence and yur article has made me tink about the brands of cod liver oil I buy. Normally I just buy it from my pharmacy. I notice your list doesn’t mention anything from continental Europe, and you seem to be really gung-ho for the fermented variety. So, as I said I live in provence, and shipping is expensive. Is Solgar a good product or is France’s pharmacy cod liver oil good enough? Let me know because your article implies that there isn’t much choice unless one lives in the States!

  62. Carolyn Graff says:

    Cod Liver oil in France
    How much vitamin A and D per teaspoon are in the Solgar? How much A and D per teaspoon are in France’s pharmacy cod liver oil? Have you checked on shipping from the UK for the fermented cod liver oil?

  63. Carolyn Graff says:

    Cod Liver oil in France
    this is from Dave at Green Pasture:
    All the brands in the EU are about the same +/-. The fermented is completely different. Your best source if interested in the fermented fclo is Holomed through the Netherlands or red23 from the UK. They both will ship to France.

  64. Dawn says:

    How much Butter Oil
    I bought Green Pastures fermented CLO and high-vitamin butter oil for my 27 mth old son hoping to relieve his eczema. If the dosage is 1/2 teaspoon CLO, how much butter oil should I give him?

  65. Carolyn Graff says:

    How much Butter oil
    1/4 teaspoon butter oil, once or twice per day, in the context of a diet that contains plenty of grass-fed butter.

  66. Tina says:

    Would we be getting too much vit D if we start using blue ice high vitamin fermented CLO (we live in Hawaii and go to the beach and are outside often)?

    Also, I have a 26 month old that I am interested in giving this CLO to. I worry about heavy metals in this product. There is nothing stating that a third party tests this product and certifies it free from any heavy metals. I have contacted the company via e-mail but received no response to this question. We are currently using Nordic Naturals which I know is safe in terms of no metals in it, but not a good choice otherwise. Can anyone help with this concern?

    • Niki says:

      Most toxic metals are water soluble, so I wouldn’t worry. Still, no food is completely free of toxicity. However, we’re equipped with detox mechanisms that use nutrients readily available in cod liver oil, such as vit. A & D.

  67. Carolyn Graff says:

    Vitamin D and heavy metals
    this is from Chris Masterjohn:
    If you live in Hawaii and are outside often and begin using one serving per day of high-vitamin cod liver oil, most of your vitamin D will be coming from the sun. I therefore do not think the cod liver oil will by itself meaningfully affect your vitamin D levels in that case, and it will provide vitamin A, which is important to balance all the vitamin D you are getting from the sun. So I think a serving per day of high-vitamin cod liver oil should be beneficial.

    this is from Dave at Green Pasture:
    All our products are third-party tested beyond what the law requires. We test heavy metals and PCB’s. In 10+ years of testing cod liver oils, I have never seen a positive test for inorganic heavy metals such as mercury.

  68. Carolyn Graff says:

    Nordic Naturals CLO
    We do not recommend Nordic Naturals CLO as it is too low in Vitamin A and/or Vitamin D.

  69. Shari says:

    My vet recommended Nordic Naturals CLO for my dog, and in reading about it I decided to get myself some too. Do you know this brand?

  70. Kirstin Lindquist says:

    Nordic Natural Artic Cod Liver Oil
    I see one product from Nordic Natural that claims no synthetic vitamins added:
    “Nordic Naturals offers the only 100% Arctic cod (Skrei) liver oil on the market. No fish body oils or synthetic vitamins or additives are ever used. No other brand can honestly make the same claim.”
    I realize the dose of Vit A and Vit D is very low in this product, but do you know if the claim of no synthetic vitamins is true? (Obviously, the claim that “no other brand…” is false).

  71. Carolyn Graff says:

    Nordic Natural Artic Cod Liver Oil
    I don’t know if their claim of no synthetic vitamins is true but WAPF still does not recommend Nordic Naturals CLO as it is too low in Vitamin A and/or Vitamin D.

  72. Elizabeth says:

    What about the Nordic Naturals Cod Liver Oil D? It has more vit D than the regular?

  73. Carolyn Graff says:

    Nordic Naturals Cod Liver Oil D
    Nordic Naturals Cod Liver Oil D is too low in Vitamin A. The right proportions are 10 or fewer units vitamin A to one unit vitamin D, and with at least 2,500 IU’s of vitamin A and 250 IU’s of vitamin D per teaspoon.

  74. Jessica says:

    Does raw milk contain enough vitamin K to replace the need for taking butter oil with CLO? And if it does, how much milk would be required?

  75. Carolyn Graff says:

    raw milk and Vitamin K
    this is from Sally:
    While raw whole milk from pastured cows would indeed contain vitamin K, I don’t think you could depend on this source for an adequate amount. You should also have other sources in your diet like grass-fed butter, cheese, chicken liver, fatty meat, etc.

  76. Carolyn Graff says:

    Carlson’s Lemon Flavored CLO
    Carlson’s Lemon Flavored CLO is too low in Vitamin A. We recommend at least 2,500 IU’s of Vitamin A per teaspoon.

    The right proportions are 10 or fewer units vitamin A to one unit vitamin D, and with at least 2,500 IU’s of vitamin A and 250 IU’s of vitamin D per teaspoon.

  77. jimmyv says:

    Carlson’s Lemon Flavored CLO
    Hi. I have had several people recommend Carlson’s Lemon Flavored Cod Liver Oil. And that Kent Rieske dude who runs highly praises it. Why isn’t this one shown on the good/best list? Is their something specifically about it that disqualifies it?

  78. Tim Boyd says:

    Reply to Ann
    Green Pasture does not subject their cod liver oil to any high heat processing which destroys vitamin content. That is unique so far in the industry. So fermented cod liver oil is much higher without adding synthetic vitamins.

  79. Ann says:

    synthetic vitamin A?
    The Nordic Naturals website claims that the amount of vitamin A in their cod liver oil is the naturally occurring amount, and that other brands that contain more vitamin A have had synthetic vitamin A added. Could this be true of Green Pastures (which is what I use). Is there any way to verify that it’s not true?

  80. George M. says:

    Hong Kong
    Thanks for the Hong Kong tip. I’ve alays had no trouble ordering online in the U.S., but last summer I made a trip to China and HK – it was nice to have my daily dose of CLO for my month stay!

  81. Carolyn Graff says:

    Green Pastures Butter Oil/Fermented Cod Liver Oil Blend
    this is from Sally:
    Yes, he should discontinue any product that provides D and K without vitamin A.

  82. jimmyv says:

    Green Pastures Butter Oil/Fermented Cod Liver Oil Blend
    Ok so I think I’m going to purchase “Green Pastures Butter Oil/Fermented Cod Liver Oil Blend” in chocolate liquid gel form (not capsules). The link is http://www.radiantlifecatalog….pplements.

    Is this the right thing to do? Should I discontinue use of the Nutrilite Vitamin D3 with K2 if I buy this product? Sorry for all these questions, and thanks for your help!


  83. jimmyv says:

    Carlson’s Lemon Flavored CLO
    Nevermind. I just read the entire article on the Vitamin A saga. I understand now. Amazing how much you don’t even know that you don’t know. Thanks again.

  84. jimmyv says:

    Carlson’s Lemon Flavored CLO
    Hi… don’t mean to be ‘pesty’. I just want to make sure I get this right before purchasing the wrong product. I am eating a diet rich in eggs, butterfat, and fish. Plus I take “NUTRILITE® Vitamin D3 2000 IU Plus K2”. Is it possible that I am getting enough vitamin A from natural food sources? If yes, does this mean that if I took… say… your first recommended product on the best list, the “Green Pasture Products: Blue Ice High-Vitamin Fermented Cod Liver Oil” that I might have too high an intake of vitamin A & D? Could this possibly be a game changer where you would then make a different recommendation for me?

  85. Fred says:

    Carlson’s Cod Liver Oil
    I actually called Carlson Labs and asked them about the vitamins in their Cod Liver Oil Gems, Super 1000 mg, and they assured me that it was only natural occuring vitamins…

    How come taht they are still just in the GOOD list?
    They provide 250 IU of vitamin D and 2000 IU of vitamin A per soft gel wich seems like a pretty good ratio

  86. Robbert says:

    Capsules just one-tenth of a teaspoon?
    Thank you for such an extensive report on the cod liver oils. I have been using the green pasture CLO for a while now keeping the dose at around 4 capsules/day.

    But your text above says I should be taking 10(!). Is it indeed accurate that one teaspoon equals 10 capsules? That would make the capsules considerably more expensive than the liquid (a bottle of capsules would last just 12 days per person).

    The bottle label itself recommends 2 servings per day. Could you please confirm I should indeed be taking 10 to reach the 10.000 A and 1000 D?

    Many thanks

  87. Carolyn M. Graff says:

    Capsules just one-tenth of a teaspoon?
    yes, you would need 10 capsules.

  88. Maja says:

    Carlson’s Norweigan Lemon Flavored Cod Liver Oil
    I read that CLO should be taken during winter while Fish Oil should be taken in the summer because of Vit D.
    My question is, what if your diet is high in fruits and vegetables and grains and you are taking vitamins like, New Chapter Prenatal, would Carlson’s be enough then? I am really worried about overdosing in vitamins.

  89. Carolyn Graff says:

    Carlson’s Norweigan Lemon Flavored Cod Liver Oil
    this is from Sally:

    Please read our information on cod liver oil. We do NOT recommend Carlsons, as it contains mostly vitamin A and little vitamin D. Nor do we recommend fish oil, as it is invariably rancid (they boil it at 230 degrees for several hours!!) and also will overload with EPA, which is not desirable. For pregnancy and lactation, we recommend 2 teaspoons fermented cod liver oil in the context of a diet rich in butter, egg yolks and organ meats. For a maintenance dose, 1 teaspoon per day, all year, unless you are a lifeguard and getting huge amounts of vitamin D from the sun.

  90. Carolyn M. Graff says:

    Capsules just one-tenth of a teaspoon?
    you can take either 1/2 teaspoon or a full teaspoon of the fermented CLO.

    from the article above:
    “Please note that the fermented cod liver oil contains many co-factors that may enhance the body’s uptake and usage of vitamins A and D; in fact, many have reported results equivalent to those obtained from high-vitamin cod liver oil with half the recommended dose, that is ¼ teaspoon or 1.25 mL for children age 3 months to 12 years; ½ teaspoon or 5 capsules for children over 12 years and adults; and 1 teaspoon or 10 capsules for pregnant and nursing women.”

  91. jimmyv says:

    Capsules just one-tenth of a teaspoon?
    Hey but wait! I take the liquid Oslo Orange and liquid unflavored butter oil. The directions recommend only half teaspoon per day of each. Am I supposed to be taking 1 full teaspoon of the Cod liver Oil? Man I sure hope not. I’ve been filling the other half of the spoonful with pure lemon juice concentrate. Even with the “Oslo Orange flavor”, I am never excited to take that CLO. The butter oil, on the other hand, is very pleasant, and I definitely take it after the CLO to end on that flavor instead. I was thinking of getting the capsules next but I may have to look into the cost now.

  92. Tim Boyd says:

    Reply to Lisa
    Swansons Double Strength Cod Liver Oil does not qualify as what we consider high-vitamin cod liver oil. You would have to take 4 capsules to get the vitamin A & D we recommend, which would cause possible overdose of EPA.

  93. Lisa Jameson says:

    Swansons CLO
    I was wondering if you could check out Swansons brand CLO
    at this link to see if it can be added to the recommended list?…Detail?n=0

  94. jimmyv says:

    Cod Liver Oil / Butter Oil Blend and A&D doses
    So I am looking at getting the Green Pastures blend, but I’m confused by the serving suggestion and associated vitamin doses. The recommended liquid 2.5 ML dose (half teaspoon) provides 3000 IU Vitamin A and 600 IU Vitamin D. But in capsule form, the recommended dose is 2 capsules and the vitamin content is listed at only 1165 IU Vitamin A and 240 IU Vitamin D per serving. This is a huge difference and would then lead me to wonder, why isn’t the recommended dose for the capsules simply 4 capsules instead of 2, providing 2330 A and 480 D? I am just trying to figure out what to purchase for next time. Am I thinking correctly on this? Also please note that I have read the articles above in full, and see that the recommended doses detailed above are 9500 A and 1950 D. This only adds a bit to my confusion as to why the recommended doses on the bottles are so much lower. Sorry for so many questions smilies/cry.gif

    Thanks smilies/grin.gif

  95. Tim Boyd says:

    Reply to Fred
    All cod liver oil coming from Europe is highly processed at high heat which destroys most of the original vitamins which are then replaced.

  96. Tim Boyd says:

    Reply to Jimmyv
    As far as I can tell, the capsule recommendations you are referring to are not in this article. If these are from another site, we can’t answer questions from other sites.

  97. Fred says:

    Carlson Labs, Cod Liver Oil Gems, Super 1000 mg
    So, let´s try again…

    When I called Carlson Labs and asked them about the vitamins in their Cod Liver Oil Gems, Super 1000 mg, they assured me that it was only natural occuring vitamins…

    How come that they are still just in the GOOD list?
    They provide 250 IU of vitamin D and 2000 IU of vitamin A per soft gel wich seems like a pretty good ratio

  98. Tim Boyd says:

    Another reply to Jimmyv
    The royal blend includes x-factor butter oil which is pretty expensive stuff. Otherwise your math looks correct.

  99. jimmyv says:

    Tim Boyd’s reply to jimmyv
    Hi Tim,

    Those recommendations are on the bottles themselves, from the manufacturer (Green Pastures). Directions (for the royal blend) are to take 2 capsules, for a total of 1165A and 240D. In order to reach the levels recommended here in this article, one would need to take 16 capsules per day, or 480 per month. So for one person, that would be 4 bottles, or $200 per month. $400 per couple. Or I can take the blend of flavored liquid gel and triple the bottle’s recommended dosage. That would be 1 bottle per month ($50 per person).

    Seems to me that the capsules are inappropriately priced for the same product.

  100. Igor says:

    “Fermented” or… rancid?
    What’s the difference between a “fermented” oil and a rancid one? I can’t wrap my head around that.

    I would have thought that when it comes to fish liver oils, the fresher, the better. After all, extra virgin olive is probably stabler than cod liver oil, yet no one sells “fermented olive oil”. In that context, we all would understand that “fermented” means rancid and that that oil would be best avoided.

  101. Claire West says:

    For a long time I used the regular clo from Green Pastures and then I used the fermented — with no problems until about six months ago: the plain (no antioxidants) fermented smelled and tasted like sludge. I could not get it down. So next I tried the “orange oslo” and it always “repeats” the orange taste. I have read that any repeat indicates rancidity. Is this true?


  102. Cathy says:

    What brand CLO would you use if you are on a very tight budget? I have 7 kids and want to provide them all with high quality CLO but some of these prices are astronomical! Suggestons?

  103. Mike T says:

    What about Seven Seas Cod Liver Oil?
    I’ve been taking cod liver oil for years, but it’s always been Seven Seas Cod Liver Oil, a British brand that’s been around since the 1930s. The label says it has 400 IU of Vitamin D and 3500 IU of Vitamin A per teaspoon, which is well within the 1:10 ratio you recommend for conventional, nonfermented oil. Best of all, it costs about $7.00 for 450 ml, which is a tremendous bargain compared to other brands and to fish oil pills.

    So why isn’t this a recommended brand?

  104. Vicki says:

    alternative for CLO?
    Hi, I am wondering about alternatives to CLO. My family has been taking the Twin Labs but we found out recently that I have an inflammatory response to cod (and several more generally healthy foods) via the Alcat test ( Also, my son who is still nursing is still allergic to yeast and dairy, so our fats have been mainly lard, suet and olive oil. We also eat pastured eggs and liver sausage on a daily basis but I feel I need more vitA for nursing and my own healing.
    I found some halibut liver oil online but read that the vitA content fluctuates widely in the species, and also do not know anything about its quality post-processing…
    Since we have adopted the Nourishing Traditions diet, my son has outgrown his strong dog allergy already (hurray!) – thanks also to Dr. Cowan’s book! 🙂
    Blessings and thanks for any suggestions.

  105. Tim Boyd says:

    Seven Seas CLO
    We are not real familiar with Seven Seas but looking at their website it appears that while the ratio is OK it suffers the same problems many other brands have. By the time the high-heat processing is done most of the vitamin A & D is gone and has to be added back. It also looks like they are using synthetic vitamins.

  106. Jaime Benavides says:

    TwinLabs Norweigan Cod Liver Oil Orange Flavor
    My question is what would the dosage be for my children? Their ages are 10, 5 1/2, 2 1/2 & 1 1/2 years old. I’d love to get them started immediately. Any help would be greatly appreciated.

    Thank You!

  107. nikki says:

    Dosage confusion for nursing mom…
    Hi there, I have been taking Green pastures CLO all throughout my pregnancy as well as the 3 months after my son was born. After reading this article I am confused by the amout I should be consuming each day. I take 2 capsules of the fermented CLO. Is this correct or should I be taking more. I read up to 20 capsules, is that a day? Or did I misread something?? Please help! Many thanks…

  108. gino says:

    written by james sept 2009 did anyone answer your question on this??? anyhow i contacted the high vit femented cod liver oil about a month ago with a simple question and am waiting still…….lol green pastures what a joke how can a site like this recommend them?? and why any important questions never get answered here? hmmmmmmmmm

  109. Jill says:

    Regarding Gino’s comment and Green Pasture
    You might assume Green Pasture did not get the email if you sent your question via email (perhaps it got in their spam filter), or accidentally overlooked answering it. Mistakes happen. If you called and they’re supposed to call back, again, it could have been a mistake.

    I used the contact form on their website to ask a question yesterday, and Dave Wetzel responded within an hour asking me to call the next day (it was about returns). I called this morning and spoke to someone immediately who was very helpful.


  110. Tim Boyd says:

    Questions in general
    This section is mainly for comments. It is almost impossible for a small organization (like us or Green Pasture) to keep up with questions from hundreds of people scattered over a thousand pages. If you have questions it would be better to first, make sure the question hasn’t already been answered, then email Thanks.

  111. V.Kesavakuamr says:

    Cod liver oil for Infants

    I am giving quater teaspoon of quantum cod liver oil to my 3 months old baby after reading articles from

    My pediatrician objecting this praticse due to the chance of getting oil pnemonia and gone through dangers of this pratice through differnt web sites

    Please clarify my doubts.

    Thanks and Regards,

  112. Tim Boyd says:

    Reply to V.Kesavakumar
    In the study you refer to, the vast majority of pneumonia cases were caused by paraffin administered nasally. Apparently there were a few cases caused by cod liver oil, probably due to the baby choking on it or being given cod liver oil when lying down. If I ate or drank anything laying down I would choke too. Cod liver oil should be safe as long as those situations are avoided. Also we recommend waiting till about 4 months before starting cod liver oil.

    • maria says:

      Just seen your comment about waiting till baby is 4 months to give Cod Liver Oil…but the homemade formula states its a must…
      Confused do I or do I not give my two month old Cod Liver Oil in the formula?

  113. tslate says:

    re: To jobert
    IMHO: Basically you went from taking 1 tsp of CLO to 1/2 tsp of mix CLO/Butter oil, I don’t think it’s 50/50 but pretty close. So you went from 1 tsp to 1/4 or 1/3 tsp daily, 3-4 times less. I would say that 1 tsp is hardly enough to see dramatic changes in one week. If the inflammation goes down then you’d feel better. But the fermented kind may take more time to work and the only direct correlation to health I have seen is that it raises vitamin D levels in the blood better than straight CLO over time. So if you really want to find out then take equivalent amounts of each over time and then see. But really 1 teaspoon is a trivial amount for an older person trying to overcome issues, assuming not much else in your diet has changed.

  114. LT says:

    Q about commissions & disclosure.
    Does the foundation get any commissions from linking people to sources for buying Blue Ice Cod Liver Oil? If so shouldn’t that be disclosed? Either way, it should be stated. Also, who actually makes the Blue Ice brand. It seems all of these sites are resellers. Just curious!

  115. Tim Boyd says:

    We do not receive any commissions. Green Pasture is the company that makes Blue Ice brands.

  116. Martin Skanborg says:

    oxidized oil in fermented cod liver oil? (Kopi)
    Hi, I just saw this article. Do you know this guy and what are your opinion on the topic?
    He almost stats that ALL fish oils become oxidized very fast!
    It even make it self oxidized in the body because it from a “cold” fish and therefor become rancid in a warm body.
    Hope that you could comment on that?
    Thanks for a great website!
    Regards Martin

  117. Don says:

    Does the FLCO/Butter OIl blend dilute FLCO along with it’s A and D vitamins?
    How am I get the recommended dose of A and D in FLCO/Butter Oil blend if it is diluted with butter oil? Should I take them separatly? Double the dose? What should the dose of Butter Oil be and are the levels of A and D in the Butter Oil itself high enough to compensate for the FLCO that is decreased when mixing the two. The manufacturer doesn’t seem to know for sure.

  118. Tim Boyd says:

    Reply to Don
    The CLO/Butter Oil blend products are 1/3 butter oil so you would need to take 1/3 more to get the recommended vitamin A & D

  119. esther says:

    Nordic Natuals.
    You mention Nordic Naturals does not make the list because of the Vit A and D not being high enough. If I am taking D and A on the side is there still value in taking Nordic Naturals. More importantly does Nordic Naturals pass the test as far as no rancidity. I called the company and they said it is good for 3 months after opening the bottle.

  120. esther says:

    Is Nordic Naturals not on the list then only because it doesnt have enough D and A. If I take those in other supplements would there still then be value in taking a teaspoon a day of NOrdic Naturals. More importantly do you have any concerns about it being rancid. The company told me it was good for 3 months after opening the bottle.

  121. Emily says:

    Horrific Taste
    While I believe that cod liver oil is a nutrient dense food, I cannot see how something that tastes so absolutely foul could be essential for optimal health. The very smell turns my stomach and the lingering taste in my mouth make me gag. These signals my body send me are screaming, “NO! I DO NOT NEED OR WANT THAT!” Can someone help me make sense of this dichotomy? I have tried Green Pasture Oslo Orange liquid as enough capsules to equal one dose is just so prohibitively expensive and ridiculous to swallow.

  122. Jean says:

    Which flavor is best for 7yr. old – and dosage
    I’m looking into buying the Blue Ice CLO and Butter Oil blend for my seven year old. She really hates fish so based on what you’ve seen or heard, which flavor do most kids like better, the Chocolate Cream or Cinnamon tingle? Would it be best mixed with a strong juice (like mango)? Is 1/4 tsp. per day the correct dose? Thanks!

  123. Tony says:

    Confused on Blue Ice Dosage
    After reading through all the comments on this page I’m still a bit confused. If I start a regimin of the Blue Ice Butter/Cod Liver Oil as an adult I should be taking approximately 1-1/3 teaspoons daily, correct? Is it detrimental to take just 1 teaspoon, or does that extra 1/3 really make the difference? (looking for opinion…I know I won’t explode if I only take the 1 tsp). Also, it’s listed as Gel form. I’m assuming just scoop a teaspoon of the gel and consume it, but is it palatable that way? Can it be mixed with something or does that serve to dilute it? Thanks for the help!

  124. Garber says:

    Reply to Emily-
    A society that has been raised on Coca Cola and Butterfinger bars with a little MSG to flavor enchance things, usually finds the healthiest foods to taste horrible. I’ve been there, trust me. Eating booked beef liver used to make me vomit. Kombucha used to do the same. But I’d never actually had them before, and the taste-paradigm my senses has become accustomed to told me these new foods were disgusting.

    I guess I overpowered them with my mind, emboldened with the knowledge that these foods really were good for me. Now, I love–even crave–some of the stronger tastes. And I can’t stand sweet foods! UGGGHHH.. Now THOSE make me want to vomit!!

    One little trick that helps is to consume bitter foods. That really gets your bile activity ramped up to handle the rich tastes in alot of these fats. I juice dandilion greens with carrot juice, take Swedish Bitters, and make bitter herbal water and alcohol extracts too. They help the process enormously!

    Hope that helps!

  125. Elizabeth N. says:

    Butter oil
    What _is_ butter oil? I understand that it is extracted via centrifuge, but is it raw butter? Or is it more like clarified butter? What is the process used to ensure that no pathogens are present? I ordered the Green Pastures fermented CLO liquid; but I am interested in the CLO/butter oil combination if I can obtain some more information about it. While I believe in raw dairy in principle, I’m still a bit too risk-averse to plunge into it without knowing the full scope of my risks. Thanks for your help.

  126. amy says:

    Reply to Emily
    I have just ordered the Blue Ice cod liver oil and now my whole family feels like vomiting just at the thought of trying it again. We do not eat processed foods, nor do we consume much sugar. I also feel like my body is screaming to get the fermented cod liver oil away! Also, I am interested to know how one can tell if the fermented cod liver oil becomes rancid. Also, has there ever been a fatty analysis on Blue Ice? It tastes like there are oxidized fats in it. There is not a chance that I will be able to get either one of my kids to ever try the fermented CLO again. They will consume Nordic Naturals unflavored or Carlson’s Lemon. I want to give them (and myself) a CLO that falls within the Asmilies/cheesy.gif ration.

  127. Joe in Missouri says:

    Carlsons 16 oz cod liver oil…Detail?n=0

    I was wondering if this product had natural vitamins A and D the price would seem to indicate so but if not the Twin Labs product is much much less expensive:


  128. Chris says:

    Amy …Re fermented cod liver oil and taste
    Fermented cod liver is not going to go off because fermentation is quite specifically a method of preserving food and enriching its nutrients so it is very unlikely that your batch is rancid …you are better off with fermented CLO for this reason as it is much more likely regular non-fermented liquid CLO is going to go off quickly.

    I infact know a very sensitive individual who cannot tolerate regular cod liver oil but can tolerate Fermented. We think, due to fact that the regular liquid CLO is going off about a week after opening the bottle whereas the fermented one this doesn’t happen. AND/OR it could also be that the fermented CLO is the only brand containing the natural vit A and D whereas the others have synthetic replacements. She can’t seem to take the capsuled CLO either due to what the capsules are made off…but she is super sensitive though! Most people will be fine with capsule CLO.

    If you do decide to take the regular CLO then capsules are better as they are less likely to go rancid compared with the liquid as they are not exposed to the air.

    Carlson’s is one of the WAPF recommmended brands and they have capsules, so you are probably fine with those. I use this interspersed with fermented CLO because they are cheaper and I can’t always afford the fermented. But I do notice I have alot more energy when taking fermented cod liver oil.

    I think there are alot of traditional foods we have simply become so unfamiliar with in our modern world that the tastes don’t come naturally to us anymore. But it’s worth the effort to make the changes for our own good health. I am quite used to taking the fermented CLO now and it is not a big problem but I did find it pretty foul to begin with.

  129. Rob Hull says:

    Another UK supplier of Blue Ice Fermented Cod Liver Oil
    My company, Funky Raw, based in the UK, now sells the Green Pasture’s Blue Ice Fermented Cod Liver Oil as well as X-Factor Gold High Vitamin Butter Oil, both available here…x&cPath=33

  130. Deb says:

    Quantum Cod Liver Oil
    For those who can’t afford the ourtrageous price for Blue Ice, google Quantum Cod Liver oil. It’s about $14.95 a bottle, is a high vitamin pure cod liver oil without artificial anything. I’ve been taking it for over 2 years now and my health has improved tremendously!

    • Beano says:

      They removed my comment about it. But it is the only CLO that made my mother’s skin glow and mine also. In fact I think I my mother and I made many younger people jealous.

      At the height of its popularity it mysteriously was taken off the market. I have tried all the CLO oil out there and NONE ever matched the ability of the Quantum CLO to deliver a glowing skin, not even the fermented ones which made my mother cough due to the fermentation.

      It seems to me my mother’s health deteriorated after that. I am reluctantly taking another brand recommended by WAP.

  131. james says:

    fish. vs. cod liver oil
    I’m new to the idea of ‘lard’ and ‘raw milk’ and ‘cod liver oil’. However I am looking at ways of increasing my intake of all of them.

    One questions i have, is: if I increase my intake of FISH, particularly oily fish, will this negate the need of fish oil, or cold liver oil?

    I can buy oily fish very inexpensivly, as compared to fish oils which are not available in my country.

    Thank you for advice.

  132. tjboyd says:

    Reply to James
    We don’t recommend fish oil in general, so don’t worry about finding that. We do recommend cod liver oil if you can find it, unless you want to eat the fish head.

  133. Brenda says:

    I need to take cod liver oil for therapeutic reasons as I have high inflammation and Hashimoto’s autoimmune disease. How much does one take of the Blue Ice cod liver oil? Do I need to monitor my Vitamin levels over time to make sure I don’t take to much?

  134. S. Grindley says:

    Is Blue Ice OK for those with lactose intolerance?

    Could I ask, for those suffering with lactose intolerance, is Blue Ice Fermented Cod Liver Oil recommended? Would anyone know?


  135. Carolyn M. Graff says:

    PCB’s in cod liver oil
    Josh wrote:
    “You should really take the now and twinlab cod liver oil down. Those two companies are being sued in California because their cod liver contained pcbs. People should really avoid those brands.”

    Can you find any info more current than March 2010?

    this article says the benefits outweigh the risks

    Counter Argument Against the Suit

    California’s Prop 65 is a more conservative standard that is not in place across the whole country. In fact, the FDA (Federal Drug Administration) allows for a tolerance of 2 parts per million of PCB in fish which is higher than California’s 90 nano-gram per day limit. Fish in general contains more PCB than fish oil supplements due to the fact that supplements go through a refining process.

    The Council for Responsible Nutrition concludes by saying …

    “The bottom line is that consumers, whether they live in California or elsewhere, should continue to feel confident in the safety and efficacy of their fish oil supplements. This lawsuit does nothing to change the strong science supporting the many health benefits of fish oil, which range from cardiovascular health to cognitive development of infants and young children, and the very low thresholds of PCBs which apparently trigger a labeling requirement in California cannot be extrapolated to demonstrate any actual risks at those levels. The health benefits for fish oil far outweigh any suggested, and unsupported, risks.”

    I can’t find anything more current than March 2010.

  136. Josh says:

    You should really take the now and twinlab cod liver oil down. Those two companies are being sued in California because their cod liver contained pcbs. People should really avoid those brands.

  137. B G says:

    Nordic Naturals
    As far as I was taught in school, Nordic Naturals is the only company that has it’s processing plant located right next to the docks, gets the fresh livers and processes them without freezing first. They also have a superior level of quality assurance for heavy metal toxicity. It’s the brand I trust.

  138. Carolyn says:

    Hello. I want to but the CLO and BO blend but as many others I have a dose question. My son was diagnosed with a cans=cerous brain tumor in 2001, how much of the blend should he get a day? The article stated if there is an illness a higher dose is needed. His tumor isn’t growing for the past 10 years. He is 14 yrs. old. Any help would be appreciated greatly. He goes outside moderatley and we live in Ohio, so Vit. D overdose is not a concern I wouldn’t think.

  139. Adrian Portell says:

    A question, and a contribution
    What a lot of information to take in and disseminate! I have been contemplating taking FCLO since reading Tim Ferriss’ ‘The Four Hour Body’, and I am very grateful for the information contained in this article. I thought I might share the information I have figured out from the greenpastures website as far as cost of dose goes. All the following is based on an adult dose of half a teaspoon of FCLO per day. It is also based on buying products in bulk (12+ units), to get the cheapest price per unit, and does not take postage costs into account.

    FCLO liquid: $0.35 per person per day
    FCLO gel: $0.45 per person per day
    FCLO capsules: $0.92 per person per day

    If one is interested in combining with High Vitamin Butter Oil (as I am), then you can also consider their blend products. In order to still achieve the desired amount of FCLO:

    Blend gel: $0.76 per person per day
    Blend capsules: $1.46 per person per day

    Since they also sell the butter oil, separately, you can mix and match. Assuming you want to maintain the same ratio of FCLO to HVBO:

    HVBO liquid: $0.26 per person per day
    HVBO capsules: $0.48 per person per day (assuming taking 2.5 capsules per day is too difficult, so instead just taking 2 capsules per day).

    Please note that these results are NOT based on the serving sizes from the labels on the greenpastures products. They are based on getting half a teaspoon of FCLO per day, and a quarter teaspoon of HVBO.

    So if you want the combination of FCLO and HVBO, your options are:
    Cheapest: FCLO liquid and HVBO liquid: $0.61 per person per day
    Palatable: FCLO caps and HVBO liquid: $1.18 per person per day
    Easiest: blend caps: $1.46 per person per day

    Also, I’d like to clear up a misconception from earlier posts regarding the amount of FCLO in the blend capsules. Each FCLO capsule contains 500mg of FCLO, and each blend capsule contains the same amount of FCLO, as the capsule is 750mg total, and 2/3 of this is 500mg (noting that the capsule is made up of 2/3 FCLO and 1/3 HVBO).

    Now for my question:
    I read an article today from, about his recommendation for NOT taking cod liver oil, and specifically mentioning the Weston Price foundation. I’d really like to consolidate these two sources of information, so if there are any updated views on why either party may be wrong, or of a way to reconcile the two opinions, I would be very keen to hear. I know the Weston Price foundation places very high importance on ratios of Vitamin A to Vitamin D, but Dr Mercola seems to think that this ratio may still be vastly wrong. He also doesn’t seem to make the distinction between fat soluble and non-fat soluble vitamin A, which may be what is leading to his conclusions about vitamin A toxicity. Am I misinterpreting this?
    The article is at:

    Feedback would be greatly appreciated, and I hope my above calculations are helpful!


  140. Ana says:

    Thank so much for including information on where to buy it for those of us who live in Europe. smilies/smiley.gif

    Ana, from Spain.

  141. tjboyd says:

    Reply to Adrian
    That is an excellent and helpful post. Thank you for your work on that. While we have great respect for Dr. Mercola and agree with him on many things, we do not agree on cod liver oil and you probably won’t find a way to reconcile our differences completely. The other articles in this section addressing that subject cover it about as well as we can.

  142. Priscilla P. says:

    Are these numbers safe?
    I just purchased Carlson’s Cod Liver Oil 1,000mg capsules, which is listed in the “Good” section of your article. The directions on the bottle say to take 1 capsule up to 3 times per day at mealtime. Since your article recommends at least 10,000 IU of Vitamin A and 1,000 IU of Vitamin D, I have decided to take 4 capsules per day. This would amount to 10,000 Vitamin A and 1,600 Vitamin D. Is this safe since the EPA per capsule is 70mg and DHA per capsule is 80mg? I read somewhere in the comments that overdose of EPA should be avoided. How much is too much?

    Also, should they be taken with meals as the directions say or should they all be taken together in the morning?


  143. Deborah says:

    CLO allergy
    I’ve tried to take FCLO several times now. The first time, all went well for a few days. I felt good. Then, I started coughing, really badly, bringing up tons of phlegm, every time I took a dose. The last dose I took, I started wheezing, so I stopped. The same thing has happened each subsequent time I’ve tried the FCLO, except that now the coughing happens immediately and the wheezing begins with the second or third dose. I thought that perhaps I could take the Blue Ice FCLO/HVBO mixture in capsules. I don’t cough when I take it, but I do ache all over and I’m very fatigued. I’m assuming that I have some kind of allergy or sensitivity to the FCLO, which disappoints me greatly. Are there other varieties of fish liver oil that might have similar benefits, to which I might not be allergic? Are there any that you would recommend I try?
    Thank you very much!

  144. jennifer says:

    FCLO chewies?
    Are there any products available for children in the chewie form? I know it would have added sugar, but I’m looking for something to give my kids (age 5 and 3) that I won’t have to wrestle them to the floor to get them to ingest…

  145. jennifer says:

    question for adrian…
    thanks for your math! I’m so overwhelmed with different dosage recommendations, different product forms, and different costs!

    If I were to take the HVBO liquid + FCLO capsules — how much of each would I be taking?

  146. tjboyd says:

    Reply to Jennifer
    For kid-friendly products see…/index.cfm

  147. Adrian Portell says:

    Reply for Jennifer
    Hi Jennifer,
    If you were to take the FCLO capsules and HVBO liquid, you’d need to take 5 capsules a day to equate to half a teaspoon of cod liver oil, and quarter of a teaspoon of the HVBO liquid. Again, I’m not 100% sure that this is the optimum ratio to take these products in, but it’s the same ratio as what is contained in their ‘blend’ products.


  148. tjboyd says:

    Reply to Priscilla
    Whether that amount of EPA and DHA is OK or not can depend on a lot of things so it is hard to say for sure. Based on comparisons with fermented CLO levels, it should be OK for most people. For more detailed information on essential fatty acids you can see…t-perilous

  149. KS says:

    butter and fclo
    My son is allergic to cow’s dairy. What should I substitute the grass-fed butter for?

  150. tjboyd says:

    Reply to KS
    To get x-factor that you would otherwise get in butter you can try skate liver oil which is available from

  151. Tiffany H. says:

    Question for Adrian on dosage
    Adrian –

    THANK YOU for compiling that!

    I do have a question, though: You mention 5 capsules and 1/2 tsp. for a regular FCLO dose. Right above you on this page, though, both Vitamin A and Vitamin D “Dosage” sections suggest a dose of 1 tsp.

    Just wondering if you were going by something else, or I was missing something, or ??


  152. Lara says:

    Vitamin D drops for infants
    I have a 9 month old who is still on the Weston Price homemade formula and therefore takes 1/2 tsp of FCLO daily. I was wondering if I should also be giving him daily vitamin D drops (400IU) as per all doctors’ recommendations for all babies in Canada.
    I have recently noticed that his skin is peeling off around his nails and I was wondering if this is maybe a lack of Vitamin D or Vitamin C..I can’t seem to find this information anywhere
    thank you

  153. Rad says:

    Möller’s Cod Liver Oil
    What about Möller’s Cod Liver Oil : ???

  154. Kate says:

    Carlson Brand
    Re the Carlson softgel options, is it Super Cod Liver Oil or Norwegian Cod Liver Oil? Since Carlson is cheaper it is more affordable for me.

  155. tjboyd says:

    Reply to Rad
    Mollers has 833 IU of vitamin A and 400 IU of vitamin D per tsp which is very low vitamin by our standards. You would have to take a lot which would probably cause overdose of omega 3.

  156. Melissa says:

    Recently BlueBonnet came out with an Icelandic Liquid Cod Liver Oil. Any reviews on this product?

  157. Heather Mathis says:

    Osteoporosis and Cod liver oil dosage
    Hello, i am very confused. I thought taking cod liver oil would be good for my osteoporosis (i am only 30). I have been reading tonight however that it could hurt. could you please tell me, as i can not have anything hurting my bones any further, if taking Carlsons (not the gels, but the liquid) is an ok ratio of A to D that would be safe for my bone healing and growth, which seems to be delayed.

    Also, how much of the carlsons liquid should i take? I am very very afriad to take it and hurt my bones from the vitamin A

    Is there another brand that would be better for bone growth? ihave been looking at getting some of the activator x high vitamin butter oil.

  158. Carolyn M. Graff says:

    Swanson Double-Strength softgel capsules
    These would qualify as under the Good category

  159. Carolyn M. Graff says:

    Reply to Heather
    Carlson liquid CLO is too low in Vitamin A so we do not recommend it. We recommend at least 2,500 IU’s of Vitamin A per teaspoon.

    The right proportions are 10 or fewer units vitamin A to one unit vitamin D, and with at least 2,500 IU’s of vitamin A and 250 IU’s of vitamin D per teaspoon.

    Look on this page above for the Best brands which are the high-vitamin fermented cod liver oils. Carlson soft gel Cod Liver Oil Super 1,000 mg capsules are listed above under Good because they are not fermented.

  160. Carolyn M. Graff says:

    Bluebonnet cod liver oil
    We do not recommend the Bluebonnet cod liver oil. The liquid is too low in Vitamin D compared to the Vitamin A content. The right proportions are 10 or fewer units vitamin A to one unit vitamin D, and with at least 2,500 IU’s of vitamin A and 250 IU’s of vitamin D per teaspoon. The softgels are too low in both A and D.

  161. Carolyn M. Graff says:

    Carlson Brand
    >>>Re the Carlson softgel options, is it Super Cod Liver Oil or Norwegian Cod Liver Oil?
    it is the Super Cod Liver Oil that we recommend.

  162. Carolyn M. Graff says:

    Carlson Super 1,000 mg capsules
    I wrote that Carlson soft gel Cod Liver Oil Super 1,000 mg capsules are listed above under Good because they are not fermented. The main reason that they are listed under Good is because they do not qualify as what we consider high-vitamin cod liver oil. You need to take 4 capsules to get the vitamin A & D we recommend and you could be getting too many polyunsaturated oils.

  163. Nicole says:

    Dairy Allergy
    I think my newborn may have a dairy allergy. Is it ok to take butter oil while breast feeding? Thanks.

  164. jen says:

    High D
    What about Carlson’s high vit D fermented cod liver oil? It has more D than the regular. Isn’t that one as good as the brands listed on your Best U.S. list?

  165. tjboyd says:

    Reply to Nicole
    It should be OK to take butter oil while breastfeeding.

  166. Stef says:

    Recommended dosage of butter oil
    Hi, Would you be able to recommend the dosage for butter oil if taken with fermented cod liver oil? I have a 7 month old baby. Thanks!

  167. tjboyd says:

    Reply to Stef
    We don’t know of any scientific studies that have established an exact formula and don’t have any reason to believe you have to be exact. You can take anywhere from half as much butter oil as FCLO to the same amount of butter oil as FCLO. If you take more, I seriously doubt you will explode – but you might go broke.

  168. Judy says:

    Our Mothers and Grandmothers swore by the good old fashioned cod liver oil. With the “new” fermented brands, is the WAPF now saying there were no health benefits to our ancestors who swore by the use of cod liver oil? I don’t know a more delicate way to ask this next question, and no offense is intended, but what relationship/interest does WAPF and it’s leadership have to the makers of the fermented brands? You must recognize that consumers are bombarded daily with health claims by professionals whose interest lie solely in pushing their own brands and products, leaving consumers wary of anyone who attach health benefits to a brand, The information given on this website is so vast and complicated at times that I am left frustrated in trying to determine what is really the best for myself and my family.

  169. tjboyd says:

    Reply to Judy from Sally
    First, WAPF has no commercial interest in the fermented cod liver oil. Rather, we are so grateful that Green Pasture has returned to the old way of making it. We will support any company that makes cod liver oil or fish liver oil in the old fashioned way. The cod liver oil that our mothers and grandmothers got was made in the old fashioned way. Today most cod liver oil is so highly processed that most of the vitamins are taken out.

  170. Sabrina says:

    butter oil vs. skate oil
    I have the same problem with my child having a dairy allergy. You said

    To get x-factor that you would otherwise get in butter you can try skate liver oil which is available from
    Do I give the skate oil instead of the CLO and the butter oil or instead of just the butter oil?

  171. tjboyd says:

    Reply to Sabrina
    Take skate liver oil instead of butter oil.

  172. Perah says:

    Seven Seas
    Would you comment on Seven Seas cod liver oil as where I am I cannot access the others listed on your site. Thanks

  173. tjboyd says:

    Reply to Perah
    Seven Seas cod liver oil (just plain liquid, not high strength) appears to have synthetic vitamin A & D which would not be good. The higher strength versions have more omega 3 which could be too much for many people.

  174. tjboyd says:

    Reply to daphneb10
    How old is that bottle? I don’t have a bottle in front of me (or a frontal lobotomy) but the Garden of Life website says 200IU per serving. They used to be 400IU or more but changed it several years ago. One thing to keep in mind is that manufacturers are constantly changing their products so this info is accurate at the time it is written. It is possible they recently changed it again and haven’t updated their website. Vitamin A to D ratio is our only issue with Garden of Life CLO.

  175. Natalia says:

    I am sorry, the dose is for 1/2 tsp not 1tsp

  176. Natalia says:

    I have noticed that CLO in capsules and liquid form have a different ratio of Vitamins A, D to Omega 3.

    For example
    Sonne’s CLO (1/2 tsp) NOW Foods (1 cap)

    EPA 220 mg 45 mg
    DHA 220 mg 60 mg
    Vitamin A2000 IU 2500 IU
    Vitamin D200 IU 270 IU

    So, is it better to take capsules in order to not overdose Omega-3?

  177. tjboyd says:

    Reply to Natalia
    Anything less than about 4000IU per tsp of vitamin A is not what we consider high vitamin CLO. You would have to take a lot of that to get the dose we recommend and it is possible to get too much oil.

  178. Natalia says:

    How about Kirkman Labs, Cod Liver Oil Liquid, Unflavored.…9237?at=0

    Vitamin A 2500 IU
    Vitamin D 250 IU
    Vitamin E 1 IU
    EPA 250 mg
    DHA 250 mg

  179. Monica says:

    FCLO – Country of Origin and manufacture issue
    Blue Ice used to be made in Scandanavia (Denmark/Norway) but in recent years (about the the last two??), Green Pastures has been producing the traditional food, FCLO, in Nebraska.

    Given the ‘traditional food’ nature of the fermentation, how can we be certain that the technique used by GP successfully produces the same quality as before? Temperature, technique and many nuances and subtleties in production technique will vary.

    Now please dont get me wrong as I have used FCLO for many many years and do value it highly. However I believe my questions are valid given the traditional nature of the food.

    I note that the WPA articles on the website predate the change in country of manufacture and were written when the product was made in Europe and imported by GP to USA.

    Just how can I have confidence that the quality of the product remains unchanged from that of its European manufacture?

    I have tried to contact BP about this but cannot get a straight answer – even one as basic as from what country is the cod liver sourced? My answer was artic!

  180. Monica says:

    No, that is not quite right. You said “FCLO has only been produced (in the last century at least) by GP in Nebraska.” however, GP imported European produced FCLO sold as Blue Ice FCLO up until about 2 years ago when they (GP) started manufacturing it in Nebraska. Dave Wenzel talks about the decision to manufacture himself here http://cdn.radiantlifecatalog….ticles.pdf

    I have been a long term user of Blue Ice FCLO but stopped for reasons of constant travel about 2 + years ago. When I went to repurchase, it was at the time of re-location of manufacture from Scandinavia to Nebraska.

    All the articles on FCLO on WPA (here: predate the transfer of manufacture of FCLO from Europe to Nebraska. Note Item 3 on that list ‘Cold Liver Oil Manufacturing by Dave Wenzel’ (of GP) is dated 2006. At this time the FCLO was manufactured in Europe.

    Please do not misinterpret my query. I have been a long term user of FCLO (2years +) and am very very keen to purchase again as I support the product but seek some assurance that the quality of the product remains comparable to that manufactured in Europe – especially given the ‘traditional’ nature of the product and what I assume to be nuances associated with its manufacture as it is a traditional food and the environment in Nebraska is very different to that of Europe/Scandanavia – where it was produced until recently.

    I just wonder whether the product has been reviewed since the transfer of manufacture to US as most articles pre-date this.

    Again, please do not get me wrong as the purpose of my query is to gain some assurance which would enable me to re-purchase the product with my previous confidence. Thats all!

  181. barbara says:

    DHA/EPA ratio
    Dr. Russell Blaylock says it’s important that cod liver oil has a higher DHA to EPA ratio. Green Pasture (Blue Ice) does not. Do you agree with Dr. Blaylock and is there a clo brand that does have higher DHA?

  182. tjboyd says:

    Reply to Monica
    I’m sure there are some differences between the fermented CLO by Green Pasture and what was made more than 100 years ago. It’s not scientifically possible to compare the 2 since we don’t have any from that long ago. Whether it is better now or not, it is our opinion that fermented cod liver oil is the best available now. The article at…anufacture was written after GP started producing FCLO and FCLO has only been produced (in the last century at least) by GP in Nebraska. They used to sell other CLO from Europe but it was not fermented.

  183. tjboyd says:

    Reply to Monica again
    The article I referred to in my previous post was the update on CLO manufacturing which is dated 2009 and is the same article you refer to in your link. If you read that carefully you never see any reference to fermented CLO from Europe. He refers to natural CLO under the Blue Ice label from Europe but natural is not the same as fermented and not all Blue Ice was fermented (although it is now). I personally visited Green Pasture in NE in summer 2008 and saw the fermented CLO production which had been going on for a while at that point so I know he didn’t just start producing it here in 2009. I looked in the vat and saw (and smelled) the fermenting livers. Soooo, I’m going to stand by what I said in my previous post. Nobody has done more meticulous testing of their product than Dave Wetzel. Most of those results are posted on his website and you can check it out for yourself.

  184. Monica says:

    I know that the product I purchased before it was produced in Nebraska was FCLO – that is why I purchased it over other brands despite high freight costs to purchase from overseas.

    Additionally I found articles from several sources (including Nourished Magazine and Kelly the Kitchen Cop – who interviewed Dave Wenzel in 2008 and has an illustration of the old label (the one I previously purchased which clearly states FCLO http://webcache.googleusercont…clnk&gl=au) who refer to “blue Ice FCLO” in 2008 – long before production in Nebraska began.

    I am not trying to be difficult on this issue. I merely want to be assured that the quality remains the same as the previously imported product as it is a traditional food relying on particular methods of production.

  185. Steven says:

    Garden of Life CLO vit A and D ratio changed again
    At my local health food store I noticed Garden of Life CLO has had their vitamin A and D ratios and amounts change since I last read posts about this certain product here. On the Garden of Life CLO bottle it says it has 3532 IU of vitamin A and 353 IU of vitamin D per serving. Compared to an older bottle I found in the same location with 5000 IU of vitamin A and 200 IU of vitamin D per serving. Should I trust what it says on the label, that their vitamin ratios have changed again?

  186. kmkb says:


    I am interested in purchasing the Blue Ice Royal Butter Oil / Fermented Cod Liver Oil from Green Pasture. I am a vegetarian. Can you tell me if there are any known risks or dangers to taking this when not consuming any forms of meat? IE. mercury poisoning risk when single source of tuna is used(as vegetarian).

  187. Michelle says:

    I and another family member recently took Twinlab’s cod liver oil and we both got very sick with hypothyroid symptoms (enlarged thyroid gland and very slow heartrate and high TSH results). Is this due to PCB toxicity or to the use of synthetic vitamins or even to a poor ratio of A to D vitamins?

  188. tjboyd says:

    Reply to kmkb
    There is no risk from mercury. If you don’t get much fat in your diet and your gall bladder isn’t working, that may give you some problems. Seafood allergies would be a risk for some people but apparently not for you.

  189. S_Bas says:

    To Michelle with hypothyroid
    I too had the same experience. Last year I started using the Blue ice brand of cod liver oil, and after two months or so I noticed my throat got swollen. The blood work showed my TSH basal was over 100.000. I cannot believe this happened to me because I am generally a very healthy person. I wonder it had anyting to do with the cod liver oil.

  190. Nan Lee says:

    Invaluable supplement healed me!
    I was so impressed with results of taking fermented cod liver oil with butter daily, that after two years on the supplement, I joined this organization and have followed their research and writings. South Asian vegetarian raised, my skin was very very sensitive and my gums were rapidly receding at 40. Also, I had cramps that seemed to be getting worse monthly. My skin is now no longer deemed “sensitive” by my aesthetician and has cleared up – it requires minimal maintenance now. My gum recession halted and my gums grew “spongy” as well, and I actually enjoyed regular cleanings. Both service providers demanded to know what I had done, but didnt seem to believe it was due to the supplements. My cramps are now fixed far more quickly with a primrose supplement. Thank you so much for your recovery of these ancient foodways and sacred foods for women. My skin is my best advertisement for the supplement.

  191. Jane says:

    Possible Hashimoto’s?
    I think if the previous posters are experiencing thyroid symptoms from taking clo they should get test for anti thyroid/anti tpo antibodies (see Stop the Thyroid Madness website for all recommended tests) and read Dr. Brownstein’s Iodine: Why We Need It book. It’s possible that extra iodine is stimulating your thyroid to produce more hormone as evidenced by a high TSH. More thyroid hormone is usually a very good thing – unless your body has decided it is allergic to it. Gluten intolerance is first step as the gluten protein is identical to the thyroid protein – and an allergic reaction to one means attacking the other.

  192. Jeanette says:

    For infants
    Hi, what can you tell me about the brand “childlife codliver oil?” I’ve been giving 1/2 tsp daily to me son since he was 6 months old. He is now 10 months and very healthy. Just wondering about the brand?

  193. Lorraine says:

    Dairy Allergy
    Is the FCLO worth getting without the butter oil? I have a strong dairy allergy (not lactose intolerance) and I don’t know how I would respond to the butter oil. Does anyone have experience with this, or know what a suitable alternative would be?

  194. ScottS says:

    Total Daily Vit A and D too much?
    I currently eat 6 large egg yolks per day plus .6 oz beef liver, .4 oz beef kidney and .4 oz beef heart,3 Tbsp of Ghee, and 1 cup heavy cream. According to fitday this comes out to about 11500 IU Vit A and 232 IU Vit D by itself. Is it then safe, or indeed necessary, to add FCLO and HVBO? I’ve been taking two of the blend capsules but wonder if its too much or unnecessary. Thanks.

  195. Lava says:

    Question noone has asked
    Do the descriptions of “all other” CLO brands apply to Linda Forrestal’s Icelandic brands, Ufsalysi and Porskalysi?

  196. Ali says:

    Better to mix your own butter oil/clo
    I tried the Blue Ice butter oil/fclo blend but did not like the pasty texture. It only comes as a “Gel” with the addition of silica, which I suppose is necessery to make the 2 oils mix together better.
    I’d recommend buying the fclo and butter oil separately; then you don’t have to worry about the silica additive. Renewed Health Supply is the only place I’ve found that gives free shipping even if you get only one bottle.

  197. Lava says:

    I should clarify my question. Can anyone tell me about Ufsalysi processing?
    Is it refined? Natural? Fermented?

  198. Carolyn says:

    I noticed you listed the non emulsified cod liver oil by Twinlabs. How much should be given to child and adult? Shouldn’t we reach 600mg of DHA? But I don’t want to cause toxicity in my children. I am a bit confused about this. And am I understanding correctly the article, if we take CLO without butter oil it isn’t effective? Thanks for clearing this up. Just how much DHA and EPA does the FCLO have?

  199. anna says:

    holland & barrett
    I’m currently taking Holland & Barrett’s CLO capsules but am worried because it contains Vitamin A as Retinyl Palmitate. They recommend only taking one capsule daily, which is only 2664 IU of Vitamin A. Is it safe to take 3-4 capsules daily???

  200. Jessica P. says:

    Hello, I have been researching FCLO and Green Pasture’s brand. I cannot find very much of their testing for toxins on their site and I don’t know how they keep the Cod fresh from the Arctic to Nebraska. Is Nitrogen used and how is the fish handled from boat onwards? I know Nordic Naturals uses Nitrogen.
    Second, I see under GP “PUrity Statement” that the Peroxide Value noted is 10. I read that the Council for Responsible Nutrition’s Voluntary Standards for Omega 3′s list the Peroxide Value as a MAX of 5 mEq/kg. 10 is double this. I am wondering also what the Anisidine values are and the TOTOX values.

    Also, I know the fish is fermented, but I thought that some level of molecular distillation is needed in order to remove toxins and contaminants. Is this true? I know it is necessary to meet California’s Prop. 65. I see GP have N/A here and I am assuming you don’t meet it b/c you are not marketed as a supplement.So how are toxins removed?

    Would love some help! Thanks!

  201. Anya says:

    nordic naturals arctic D
    It has been stated several times that wpah do not recommend nordic naturals due to insufficient vitamins a and d, but how about Nordic Naturals, Arctic-D Cod Liver Oil? This has higher levels of both A and D.

    Also, Nordic Naturals explicitly state that they do not add any synthetic Vitamin A to their products. Is this also true of all the brands that you recommend?

  202. Patricia dela Garza says:

    Reply to Julie – April 2012
    Julie, I don’t think your kids had a reaction to gluten, but to OXALATE. Chocolate (and wheat and other grains) is very high in oxalate and can cause reactions “to gluten”. That’s what happened to my girl. The best place to read the science of oxalate chemistry is Susan Owens discussion group on yahoo!…_Oxalates/

    If they have a leaky gut, they are absorbing excess oxalate and affecting their biochemistry. The good news is that the low oxalate diet is gluten free and equal to none in gut repair. It is not a “forever” diet, people graduate! smilies/smiley.gif Good luck in your health journey.


  203. Margie M says:

    Liver and autoimmune disease and cod liver oil
    I have Cree heritage and have hereditary severe fatty liver and autoimmune problems, probably pbc or overlap. As a very young child my skin was extremely rough and dry. Doctors could not seem to find a solution. As a teenager I began to supplement with vitamin A in the form of fish liver oil and noticed a complete cure of my extremely dry skin within a week of taking it, per the label instructions. With the onset of my acute liver disease as a young adult, I was told to discontinue taking any fat soluable vitamin. I know now that I do not metabolize fats properly and am essentially malnutritioned without proper supplementation. A lot of damage has been done to my body. Cod liver oil is the safest supplementation product for me because it contains a low dose that can be titrated based on the number of capsules I take. I also have vitiligo and it has improved and reduced the vitiligo by conditioning the skin (the more damage, the more vitiligo). Because of my metabolic problems I cannot get any vitamin A benefit from beta carotine, but need supplementation from oils. I noticed that better vitamins contain vitamin A in both forms, perhaps the substitution of beta carotine for fish liver oil in childrens vitamins might be responsible for rises in ADD and ADHD and other health problems as some children may not metabolize these nutrients as well as others.

  204. Alexandra says:

    How long is FCLO good for?
    How long will the cod liver/butter oil keep in the refrigerator?

  205. Julie says:

    Green Pastures Butter oil, fermented cod liver oil chocolate creme gel gluten free?
    I just gave my gluten intolerent children the butter oil/cod liver oil chocolate gel and they had a very bad gluten reaction to it. I contacted the company and rec. an e-mail within one hour stating there was not gluten in the product. I am not sure the company understands all the places where gluten hides. Has anyone else had this experience with the product?

  206. Mac Low says:

    “He (Dr.Price) found that cod liver oil on its own was relatively ineffective but combined with high vitamin butter oil produced excellent results.”

    Raises so many questions.
    Was C.L.O.ineffective by itself?
    That would suggest that it needed butter (oil) to work, and that the history of its benefits, aside from using with butter, was non-existent.
    That’s absurd, considering almost all cultures who used C.L.O., did so without butter, and derived benefits, including from rickets and such.

    What is meant by ‘relatively’ ineffective?
    Relative to the effects only derived from Vitamin K (X factor) support?
    -Like minerals and Vit A+D utilization and such.

    What type-quality of C.L.O. was Dr. Price using at the time?
    Processed or fermented?
    Perhaps, if it was processed, it needed butter lipids to help assimilate.
    But if fermented or otherwise minimally processed, so as not disturb key lipid and enzyme factors, then butter (oil) should not be needed with C.L.O.

    Look forward to relevant reply’s. Hope questions I posed, can be answered.
    Thank You WAPF, for so much.

  207. tjboyd says:

    Reply to Mac Low
    I believe Price was looking specifically at the effects of cod liver oil on tooth decay when he said CLO by itself was relatively ineffective. He wasn’t referring to rickets or anything else. Also, as far as I know, fermented CLO was not available during that time period so it would have been processed to some extent. I don’t know of any formal research on fermented CLO by itself on cavities.

  208. Sue Stewart says:

    Certified Nutritional Consultant
    Carlson’s Super 1000mg soft gels are 2,000IU vitamin A to 400IU vitamin D – a ratio of 5:1 My understanding is that this is a good ratio. The vitamins themselves are natural source. They do make a low vitamin A version so perhaps there is confusion. I have found this brand to be inexpensive and reliable – vitamin D blood levels do respond to this formula. Please reconsider your recommendation regarding Carlson’s brand cod liver oil.

  209. Julie says:

    Thanks Patricia
    My kids reaction to the butter oil product may be an oxolate reaction and leaky gut problem. I never heard of oxolates before, but it makes sense to me now, esp. since the kids have been using an electronic parasite zapper (Dr. Hulda Clark). They have been releasing huge amounts of parasites from thier bodies, which would explain the leaky gut connection. I will keep zapping them and try to use the oil in another month, when the parasite problem is under control and the gut (hopefully) has healed.

  210. Jon Pellington says:

    Seven Seas cod liver oil
    Hi guys, I contacted seven seas directly and had quite a good response, I think over all it is a good brand to use.

    Below is the response email I got to the question “do you use synthetic vitimin A & D”


    Hello Jon

    Thank you for your enquiry regarding Seven Seas Supplements.

    Cod liver oil is a natural product and will vary in its content of vitamins A and D as well as the omega-3 polyunsaturates EPA and DHA. The oil is extracted from the livers of cod by gentle heating. However, the resultant ‘raw’ oil is not suitable for human consumption and must, therefore, undergo some processing. We have marketed refined cod liver oil for over 70 years and use refining processes, developed over this period, that are as gentle as possible while sufficiently effective in order to produce a golden, bland-tasting, quality supplement.

    Levels of vitamins A and D decline throughout all the processing steps starting from the point of extraction. As these levels are usually laid down in the product specification, A and D must on occasions be added to meet these specifications. We add retinyl palmitate (Vitamin A) and Vitamin D3 cholecalciferol. Although synthesised, the chemical forms of these compounds are those that occur in natural foods. These vitamins are not ‘artificial’ and are not toxic. They have been used by the food, food supplement and pharmaceutical industries for very many years and are approved for use by all relevant national and international authorities. Many foods in their ‘raw’ state are not suitable for human consumption and must, therefore, be processed. This may result in nutrient losses and the levels are often restored.

    We have a large ongoing New Product Development programme and we follow scientific and regulatory developments closely. If there is scientific consensus that a compound or ingredient is of concern or if there is a regulatory requirement, we will investigate the use of suitable alternatives in order to improve the quality and health-promoting properties of our products.

  211. Neil B says:

    Re: Seven Seas
    Hi John,

    From the response that you’ve got from Seven Seas, they’re confirming that their supplement is mostly a synthetic product, with nothing much natural of any real value. You’d be better off buying one of those fish oils recommended above, as the oil is fermented, a process that retains the vitamins you want without the need to add anything synthetic to it. They are fermented the way nature intended.


  212. Erica Etelson says:

    Nordic Naturals
    What do you think of Nordic Naturals ProDHA and DHA junior? What I like about this company is that they test for mercury and other toxins in the fish they use.

  213. tjboyd says:

    Reply to Erica
    We recommend cod liver oil for the vitamin A & D. Some omega 3 is OK but it is easy to get too much so we don’t recommend omega 3 supplements. All fish oil companies test for mercury and other toxins. If they don’t meet standards, by regulation their product does not get into the US.

  214. Erica Etelson says:

    cod liver questions
    @tjboyd: Thanks for your reply: (1) Can you say more about getting too much Omega-3 or point me to an article about this — I had thought you couldn’t get too much of this. (2) Also, if I eat beef/chicken liver once a week, should I be concerned about ALSO taking cod liver oil daily (too much Vitamin A)? Should I skip the cod liver on the days I eat beef/chicken liver? (3) And is it just as effective to get Vit A in a once weekly mega-dose (by eating liver) vs. getting a more moderate dose on a daily basis? (4) Same question for Vitamin B-12: does eating kidney once a week suffice or should I also supplement daily? Lots of questions…thanks for taking the time to respond!

  215. tjboyd says:

    Reply to Erica
    Here is a link to Chris Masterjohn’s article –…t-perilous
    We can’t say for each individual what is the optimum amount of each vitamin. We’re a little more concerned that the balance between vitamins, especially A & D is good. I don’t think you necessarily need consistent daily doses as long as you get some quality sources on a regular basis.

  216. Arti says:

    Liquid or pill form & cod liver oil versus fish oil
    Hi all,
    I’m very impressed with the many nutritional benefits of cod liver oil! My mom just recently told me that her dad used to make her & her siblings drink it every day (in India)! It’s amazing how much we can learn from “less civilized” countries! She said it tasted horrible so she is in favor of pill form. I was intending to buy the liquid form, but are there
    disadvantages or advantages with taking the pill form? Also, is there any issue with taking the flavored liquid formulas? I’m currently nursing my 11-month-old baby & taking prenatal vitamins (New Chapter Organic Perfect Prenatal) & fish oil pills (Nordic Natural Omega D-3). Is it okay to take cod liver oil or should I wait to take the cod liver oil until after I’m finished nursing? Thanks for any tips!

  217. Nerine says:

    I am in need of some brand recommendations for cod liver oil in South Africa.
    Will appreciate your feedback.

  218. Polly says:

    Nursing women – dosage Blue Ice Fermented capsules
    Hi, I’m a nursing mother and am trying to take the right dose of blue ice CLO – you recommend 10-20 capsules, is this really ok? I am a little worried as since I began taking 10 a day, I have had headaches a few hours later. I also have dry skin, though this could be a postpartum symptom. I really want to get enough but don’t want to risk anything.

  219. Darrell says:

    Compared to the Blue Ice CLO, The Blue Ice Skate Liver Oil has a higher percentage of DHA than EPA according to Mr. Wetzel of Green Pastures.

  220. Michael says:

    NutraPro Grass Fed High Vitamin Butter Oil
    I found another Butter Oil from NutraPro that is more affordable than Green Pasture’s Butter Oil, and seems to be comparable in quality according to their website:

    However, I’m new to this stuff and can’t affectively compare the two. Is anyone currently using it, or can anyone confirm that this is a quality Butter Oil alternative? Seeing that there are not many Butter Oil options, it would be helpful if WAPF could add this to their recommendation list if indeed meets their standards. Any feedback would be appreciated. Thanks!

  221. Irene Ryan says:

    Natures Answer CLO – Any good??
    Is this stuff any good? can’t afford the Green Pastures, its too expensive, how can people afford it??

  222. Carolyn M. Graff says:

    Natures Answer CLO – Any good??
    I have looked up the amounts of A and D in this CLO and it does fit our description for Good so I will add it to this webpage. Thanks for bringing this brand to our attention.

  223. Emily says:

    I am wondering why you don’t list “Garden of Life” as a resource for CLO. I was under the impression that they’re one of the best. My little girl and I take their basic “Old World Icelandic” CLO, and have been for years. If I’m mislead, could you please tell me why? Thank you!

  224. tjboyd says:

    Reply to Emily
    Garden of Life has gone back and forth on the amount of vitamin D in their oil. Currently (as far as I know) it has enough vitamin D so that it is good. Previously, it did not. We are a little hesitant to keep updating our website every time they change.

  225. Sarah Lewis says:

    liquid cod liver oil – too much air exposure?
    Just wondering if liquid CLO is advisable, since it will be exposed to quite a lot of air each time the bottle is opened. Would this cause a significant amount of oxidation or not? I would prefer to take liquid as buying the required amount of capsules will be expensive, but I am worried about this issue.

  226. Lisa says:

    Vital Choice?
    Do any of Vital Choice fish oils meet your guidelines?

  227. David P says:

    Eating Cod Fish vs Taking Cod Liver Oil
    Dear tjboyd,
    Thank you for maintaining this wonderful article. I am wondering why not just eat lots of cod fish, would that be just as good as taking cod liver oil?

  228. tjboyd says:

    Reply to Lisa
    No, we don’t recommend any fish oils, just cod liver oil. There is a difference.

  229. Sailaja says:

    6 mo old with vitamin deficiency

    I have a 6 mo old baby that has been diagnosed with vitamin d deficiency. She was tested for something else and the vitamin D findings were totally by chance. She is doing ok for her age milestones wise. She is standing on all all fours and stands up if supported. Her vitamin D (25 Hydroxy) was 9.4 ng/mL and 23.50 nmol/L. Is it enough if I give her high vitamin cod liver oil and take her out in the sun to get her vitamin d levels back to normal? And what should the dosage be. Please advise. Thanks a ton! I am currently in India. There is plenty of sunshine here.

  230. Paulo says:

    Swanson double strength Cod Liver Oil capsules
    I am suspicious of the Swanson double strength Cod Liver Oil.
    I suspect it contains added synthetic Vitamin A content for a couple reasons.

    It is the cheapest per dose of any source found.
    It has 6 times more vitamin A than the more expensive Swanson EFAs Pristine Norwegian Cod Liver Oil (SWE04smilies/cool.gif which claims to be minimally processed cold pressed.

    I would like to believe but it doesn’t make sense. I see it is listed in the Weston list as GOOD.


  231. ratika says:

    cod liver oil
    my son is three and half years of age.Can i give him seven seas cod liver oil.Please also kindly recommend me the dosage for it.


  232. Regina says:

    To Paulo – Just above the recommendation list it says:
    “sources of processed cod liver oil with synthetic vitamins in the right proportions are in the GOOD category. We do not recommend brands of cod liver oil that have only low levels of vitamins A and D.”
    So I wouldn’t be surprised if it does have synthetic vitamins in it.

  233. Pat says:

    On his website, Chris Masterjohn said (in 200smilies/cool.gif, “My current opinion is that we should be cautious, using small amounts of high-vitamin cod liver oil to provide both fat-soluble vitamins and very modest amounts of omega-3 fatty acids”. He also mentions on his site that a normal dose is 1/2 teaspoon for adults. So, why does WAPF recommend twice that amount for adults? I’m confused since he seems to be cautioning us to go easy on FCLO. I’m worried that I’m taking too much FCLO by taking a full teaspoon every day for the rest of my life! Thanks in advance.

  234. tjboyd says:

    Reply to Ratika
    As far as I can tell Seven Seas CLO has no vitamin A so we can’t recommend it. If none of our recommendations above work for you we don’t really have anything else to recommend.

  235. Kate says:

    Price of CLO
    I just don’t see how I can possibly afford the best category. Garden of Life is so much cheaper that I wonder about the quality. This is overwhelming and makes me not want to buy any at all. Surely, I’m not the only one who feels this way!

  236. Amy says:

    Thank you!
    I just wanted to tell you how much I appreciate this list. So many websites endorse only one specific (unaffordable)brand. It can be very off-putting for those of us who don’t have the means. This is very helpful for someone who is trying, but can’t always afford “the best”.

  237. Ana says:

    I’d like to know which one is the manufacturer who adds the natural vitamins removed during processing back into the cod liver oil, as the BEST brands are unfortunately not an option for me. Thank you.

  238. Catherine says:

    How much of fclo/Bo blend to take?
    I see your recommendations for how much FCLO to take when pregnant, but it doesn’t state how much to take if its blended with high vitamin butter oil.
    I have been taking 5g of green pasture gel. Is this still enough now that I am pregnant?

  239. Jeff_From_Oz says:

    Melrose Cod Liver Oil
    Why has the Melrose cod Liver Oil been taken off the Good List In Australia ?

  240. Sarah says:

    I can not eat fish due to severe allergies. I’ve been searching for an equivalent to FCLO. I too want to remineralize my teeth and enjoy these health benifits. Surely there is a grouping of suppliments that I can take to remineralize my teeth and boost my system too. Please do share!

  241. Laura says:

    response to nordic naturals question
    Read this:…lo-update2
    It says they do not recommend Nordic Naturals and also explains why.

  242. Karen says:

    cod liver oil
    Do you recommend Premier’s Quantum High Vitamin Cod Liver Oil ? It is a little less expensive than Green Pastures. We have a large family and I am hoping to find good quality cod liver oil that wont break my budget.

  243. Elma Chambers says:

    Cod Liver Oil – new product from Standard Process
    Cod Liver Oil is the newest supplement from Standard Process. Have you had a chance to check it out and if so, do you recommend it?

  244. tjboyd says:

    Reply to Elma
    We have taken a look at the ingredient details and the amount of vitamin A per recommended dose is fairly low so you would have to take a lot and then run the risk of getting too much omega 3.

  245. Lisa @ says:

    Fermented cod liver oil helped me with my teeth/gum pain.
    I’m a fan of fermented cod liver oil. I originally bought this for my kids. They don’t always eat healthy foods. They still eat junk foods and candy. It’s so hard to avoid. Many events serve this kind of foods, birthday, halloween, valentine, christmas, and so on. When we go out of town or to the park, the choice of foods are limited as well, mostly pizza , burger or hotdog.
    I’m afraid they will get sick if I don’t give them healthy food at home. I give them cod liver oil at home. I usually add it on their soup. Thanks God. They’re healthy overall, despite of many junk foods they ate. Last time I had sensitivity in my gum and teeth. It happen twice already for the last couple months. I took 1 teaspoon of cod liver oil 3 times a day for 3 days, and the pain is gone. It’s an amazing product. By the way, at home I try to eat healthier and more nutritious foods. Once or twice a week, I make green smoothies, made with raw organic seeds, organic berries, and organic greens. My kids love this smoothies too.

  246. t says:

    peace, hope, and love peeps
    hello all you peepssmilies/smiley.gifsmilies/grin.gif uh, what about Nature’s Place vitamins.
    thx and peace,

  247. JP says:

    Is anyone aware that on the label of ingredients on the nature’s answer cod liver oil it states that it contains soy? 🙁

  248. June says:

    Canned cod liver
    Instead of cod-liver oil, I buy a can of cod liver. I slice it and make salads with it. It’s great!

    I assume if babies and children can have cod-liver oil, then they can also have canned cod liver. Is my assumption correct?


  249. Z Gao says:

    A WAPF believer

    I am a believer of WAPF principles. In reading this article, I wonder if any of these brands (Green pasture, Carlson’s, etc.) ever donated to WAPF? Just curious.

  250. Justina says:

    CLO + Vit A
    Would CLO + Vitamin A capsules have the same effect as taking a larger dose of High-Vitamin CLO?

  251. The Farmicist says:

    Cod Liver Oils – Recommended
    I currently use Sonne’s #5 and have had good success. It tastes rather fishy, obviously, but does not contain any fillers and is minimally processed. Another good choice is a fermented cod liver oil, because it is essentially pre-digested.

  252. Elisabeth says:

    Butter substitute
    I have a son who has a dairy allergy — not just lactose. Is there anything you recommend taking in place of the butter oil?

  253. Really? says:

    According to this article, cod liver oil from Carlson, Nature’s Answer, NOW, Sonne’s, Swanson, and Twin Labs all contain synthetic vitamin A and D. Is this really true?

    “…sources of processed cod liver oil with synthetic vitamins in the right proportions are in the GOOD category.”

    GOOD (and available in Stores):

    Carlson soft gel Cod Liver Oil Super 1,000 mg capsules
    Nature’s Answer liquid cod liver oil
    NOW double strength Cod Liver Oil capsules
    Sonne’s Cod Liver Oil
    Swanson double strength Cod Liver Oil capsules
    Twin Labs non-emulsified liquid Cod Liver Oil

  254. Heather Olsson says:

    Garden of Life
    Garden of Life has a new line called Oceans. The Ocean’s Mom says it has 350mg of DHA and 15mg of EPA. No mention of vitamin A and D. This is a prenatal and breastfeeding version. They say that they have a very high standard. I was able to talk to one of the Vice Presidents of the Company and he assured me that their whole line is continuously tested by outside firms for quality and purity. They only use the highest quality of product is what they say their standard is. It is much cheaper than the Fermented oil but about the same price as the Good quality products on the list. Any info would be helpful.

  255. tjboyd says:

    Reply to Heather
    Garden of Life Oceans 3 cod liver oil and other Oceans 3 products are mostly omega 3 supplements which you can easily overdose on so we recommend being careful with that. The cod liver oil also uses vitamin E from soy and has barely any vitamin D. We would not recommend it.

  256. Deb K. says:

    Artificial Vitamins and Soy
    From my investigation in emailing two companies that are recommended as carrying a “good” brand of CLO:

    Garden of Life Olde World Icelandic CLO contains soy listed in ingredients as the alpha tocopherol. I bought it from Vitacost which says it does not contain soy on the web site but on the bottle it reads “may contain soy”. I wrote GOL and asked what kind of soy and they said it was distilled and it was in minute amounts to keep the oil from going rancid.

    Swanson double strength CLO tablets contain artificial vitamins. The company that makes “ecoMarine” for Swanson wrote me and explained that the Swanson double strength CLO contains both natural and artificial vitamins. I think they were a bit nervous about revealing that since I got another email from someone completely different stating that I should talk to Swanson about it.

  257. Deb K says:

    Sonnes Cod Liver Oil
    I contacted the manufacturer of Sonnes Cod Liver Oil No. 5 with questions about their cod liver oil. They told me without hesitation that they add artificial vitamins to their CLO.

    • Jon says:

      I, too, contacted Sonne’s a few months ago (circa March 2015) and pressed their telephone representative about what is added. Was told that they only add Vitamin D — NOT vitamin A.

      • Paul says:

        Juat some more info to add from a contact I made with Sonne’s last week for those interested…

        “Our Cod liver oil is by Molecular Distillation a process primarily used to concentrate omega-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA) in fish oil, and remove contaminants. It is refined at a very low temperature. Our product is filled to the top so there is not enough area for oxygen to get in to make it rancid.

        There is some natural A & D3 – however, we have had to add some, in order to keep up with the daily allowance.

        The A is Retinol and the D3 is Lanolin.”

  258. Alice Chong says:

    Melrose Cod Liver Oil

    Is Melrose cod Liver Oil ok to consume ?

    • Julie says:

      I am taking one tablespoon of Melrose cod liver oil per day. Have found many bruises all over and my eye is bleeding. Have I over dosed on Vit A from the cod liver oil?
      Thanks Julie

  259. NITIN SINGHAL says:


    Please mention the best brands of cod liver oil in India…

  260. Kasha says:

    Cod Liver Oil
    I’ve noticed on your page, you have for “Pregnant and nursing women: A dose of cod liver oil that provides about 20,000 IU vitamin A daily, obtained from 4 teaspoons regular cod liver oil or 2 teaspoons high-vitamin cod liver oil.”

    What is the conversion equation from IU to mg as I’m looking at Carlson Lightly Lemon Cod Liver Oil 1000 mg, soft gel capsule

    How many soft gel capsules are recommended to reach the daily dose stated above!?!

  261. Mark says:

    Arriving at your IU’s/ml
    I am wondering where you arrived at your IU/ml levels found in FCLO – according to an interview with the owner of green pastures they peg their levels at twice as much as you have listed which equals a 10:1 ratio. that is an alarming difference. do you have any documents or lab results you could send my way to help me understand the difference?…h-oil.html

  262. staffaction says:

    Is it ok to take Green Pasture’s Cod Liver Oil during pregnancy? Does it have worrisome amounts of Mercury in it?

    Thank you so much.

  263. Mark says:


    My wife found two unopened bottles still in the box of Garden of life Oceans 3 Cod liver oil.
    Problem is they expired in 6-11. I hate to throw them away.
    So i opened one of them and it didnt taste too bad or smell rancid. But i am not familiar with cod liver oil and what it should smell like. I tasted a sip and it had an orange flavor followed by what must have been the cod liver oil. Overall not bad and something i could tolerate.
    I started to put it in the fridge and saw we had some other cod liver oils

    First two were by Green Pastures both with no expiration date on the label-bottle or cap
    1. Blue ice Fermented CLO
    2. X factor High Vitamin Butter oil

    Both of the above smelled rancid

    Then i had a bottle of Twin Labs Emulsified Norwegian CLO with an expiration of 12 – 2011
    didn’t really smell bad but the taste was not pleasant and really fishy and bitter

    Of all of them the Oceans 3 Smells and tastes the best but might be the oldest and not refrigerated.

    Not sure if they are all bad and i am choosing the best of the bad or if the 2 bottles of Oceans 3 might be ok to use.

    Can it be harmful?

    Any ideas would be appreciated



  264. Skylar says:

    I had to take my mother to the ER yesterday because she had severe pain in her right big toe that was excruciating. She couldn’t walk and it hurt her tremendously to even touch her right foot. The ER doc diagnosed her as having gout and he recommended she avoid animal organ meats, especially liver, since she had a buildup of uric acid in her right toe joint, which was the cause of her pain. That is very disappointing since she has severe tooth decay and I wanted her to partake in consuming organ meats and cod liver oil for her healing. Has anyone here heard of such a scenario? If yes, what solutions do you recommend so that my mother can remineralize her teeth w/o causing another gout reaction?

  265. Alek says:

    Have you seen this site?

    This is from Rosita Real Foods, a small company in Norway that sells cod liver oil and ratfish oil extracted by traditional Nordic methods (not fermented).

    Could be another option for your ‘best’ list, I think – they’re the real Mccoy!

  266. Lee says:

    OK interesting read, a lot of comments there to digest, after sifting thorough I wold like to say that I have stopped taking fish oil mainly because of my concern about heavy metals and pollution in the ocean and the fact that this may be turning up in fish based products. As an alternativve source of omegas I have started taking PEOs, there is a lo of good research as to why these may be preferable sources of Omegas,and becuase they are plant based and organic they are free from polutants. . Google Prof Brian Pleskn he has done a lot of research regarding plant based PEOs and their benefits.
    Cheers, Lee

  267. Janet says:

    My 19 year old daughter has severe acne. We’ve gone the antibiotic/prescription face cream route which only helped a little bit. We’re wanting to avoid serious drugs with side effects. In researching information online, I read that a woman used 100,000 iu’s of Vit. A for 7 days straight, then dropped the dosage down to 25,000 iu’s for a while for maintenance, and then got to where she didn’t need it any longer. I realize making sure the Vit. D intake is necessary, but wondered what you think about such a high dosage for those 7 days. Since it’s only 7 days, do you think it would be safe? Accutane is definitely a high dose of Vit. A, but we’d rather avoid that medicine.

  268. Nathan says:


    I have had gout attacks for the past 10 years and I am a 35 year old male. I avoided red meat, fish, and everything else I was told caused gout. I purchased a uric acid meter and kept up with my uric acid levels. This past year I drastically changed my diet and lost 40 pounds. I have not had any gout attacks and my crp level (inflammation marker) went from 14 to less than 0.3. My uric acid fluctuates from day to day and hour by hour even though they say it takes awhile for uric acid levels to change. Sometimes it is in the 5’s and other times it is as high as 13 (if I’m fasting), but no gout. In my opinion sugar is the primary gout culprit. I only eat sweets with raw organic honey now and mostly avoid processed foods. I can now eat salmon, sardines, red meat, cod liver oil etc… with no attack.


  269. Susan says:

    I was wondering about NutraPro’s Virgin Cod Liver Oil. What is WAPF’s assessment of it?

    • Tim Boyd says:

      We don’t have any information on the vitamin A & D content, which is the main reason we recommend cod liver oil.

  270. Health Rack says:

    I’ve just come across this article and was wondering if anybody had every come across the company Health Rack. I can see they sell 1000mg Cod Liver Oil.

    Would be interested to get some more information if possible?

  271. Justin Roy Olson says:

    Can anyone tell me if it would be okay if i took two teaspoons of fermented cod liver oil? I want to take more because of the 3 grams of fish oil I should be taking… I’m 24 year old male 5’11 and 153 pounds….

  272. Apple says:

    If you take the green pasture brand, or whichever of the high vitamin cod oil, do you still need to take it with the butter oil?

  273. Eva says:

    You state above:
    “All our products are third-party tested beyond what the law requires. We test heavy metals and PCB’s. In 10+ years of testing cod liver oils, I have never seen a positive test for inorganic heavy metals such as mercury.”

    Where is the data sheet? That third party testing should have produced results, which should be available for consumers to review. Otherwise, you are simply making a claim which could be entirely false. Where is the proof? I found nothing on your website. I don’t see any indication on the bottle. This is unusual in the industry.

    You also claim a “proprietary extraction method.” In other words, you won’t share with consumers how you produce the oil. This is quite unusual. I’ve not heard of one single other fish oil producer who won’t describe their extraction method.

    I’d love to believe that your product is special, and all you claim it to be. I’m seeking proof, rather than simple statements and claims.

    Thank you

  274. Eva says:

    Sorry, to be clear; I am referring to the Green Pastures Brand.

  275. Patrick says:


    Would the benefits of eating cod liver oil directly be the same?

    On the label it says: 99% cod liver in own oil and fluid, the rest is salt.

    It goes very well with salads etc.


  276. Justine says:

    The Rosita Real Foods Extra Virgin Cod Liver Oil is out and available to purchase. I was wondering if there was any opinion on if it is as good as the green pastures fermented oil. I have heard that it doesn’t have as bad of a taste so I am very interested in trying but only if it is as good. Have you looked into it yet?

  277. Justin Roy Olson says:

    I would stick to Green Pastures!

  278. Cjr says:

    How much would you recommended of the green pasture to fight the stress and anxiety I have?
    I’m 30 and have been dealing with anxiety now for about 2 years.

  279. BJ says:

    It looks like the extra virgin cod liver oil is raw / unprocessed and only contains naturally occurring vitamins.

    Here’s a snippet from their website:
    “Rosita Extra Virgin Cod Liver Oil is real Norwegian cod liver oil that is fresh, raw & handcrafted from wild livers using a very rare ancient extraction technique which uses nature to separate the oil from its liver. No chemicals, solvents and mechanical devices are ever used during the extraction process. The oil is completely unrefined and produced under the total absence of heat, a process that protects its nutritional value.”

  280. Linda says:

    I have found this Blue Ice brand of cod liver oil gives me terrific heartburn. I have tried storing in the freezer in hopes that it would pass thru my gut frozen and prevent the heartburn. however, it didn’t work. Someone suggested rubbing it on the bottom on my feet. They said it still gets into a persons system. Any suggestions?

  281. Jeff says:

    Regarding the Swanson Double Strength Cod Liver Oil, I asked if the A & D were naturally derived or synthetic additives, and what was the method of extraction. This was their response:

    “To begin with, we would like to assure you that both the Vitamin A and Vitamin D are naturally derived from the cod liver oil itself in our Cod Liver Oil softgels. The oil is extracted using a cold pressed method of extraction and no solvents are used.”

  282. AJ says:

    It seems that the Garden on Life Olde World cod liver oil is the only oil that does not use synthetic vitamins within the “good” category.Am I correct or incorrect?Garden of life has not gotten back to me as yet regarding the question.

    • Paul says:

      Here is an answer to your question.

      “We obtain our Olde World Icelandic Cod Liver Oil from a supplier just as all company’s do and the only ingredients we add ourselves are the natural lemon essence, natural peppermint essence and alpha tocopherol. We do not use artificial ingredients in our products. We cannot guarantee that the Vitamin A and D are entirely naturally occurring.

      The Vitamin A in our Olde World Icelandic Cod Liver Oil is in the form of Retinol and the Vitamin D is D3.”

  283. Joy says:

    I have a bottle of the Rosita EVCLO in my fridge now, and have begun taking it. It has a pleasant, light slightly fish flavor (which doesn’t bother me at all). I have read through all the information on their website (it is quite detailed), and I like what it has to say. The vitamin content of A&D is modest, but as they state in their material, this is the amount that codfish has always had in their livers, and what the healthy Vikings thrived on for years. I took the Green Pasture CLO for a few years, but the last time I took it, it tasted horrible–my body was saying NO, and indeed I became quite sick around that time with diarrhea for weeks. I won’t take it again. I am glad that there is now another thoughtful alternative. (The Rosita butter oil is also good–nice deep yellow color).

  284. Sara Gordon says:

    The link to the article: Vitamin A for fetal development is not working.

  285. Jeff says:

    I am sure that Green Pasture’s Butter Oil / Fermented Cod Liver Oil blend is fantastic, but I do not want to pay $50 + S&H for roughly 3 month supply, so I am doing the following. Probably not the best but good enough for me:

    Vitamin K / the “X Factor”: Vitacost Ultra Vitamin K with Advanced K2 Complex: $12 for 90 days. Has both MK-4 and MK-7.

    Vitamin D3: Nutrigold Vitamin D3 Gold (in Organic Olive Oil), 2000 IU: $15 for 360 days

    Vitamin A (animal-based): Double-Strength Cod Liver Oil: $8.50 for 250 days (50% RDA vitamin A in 1 pill; I get the rest as beta-carotene).

    Monthly cost: $6.27

    I throw in a bit of Kerrygold butter (exclusively grass-fed) in a smoothie every morning.

  286. Victoria Peters says:

    Cod liver oil can help to prevent serious diseases such as arthritis, diabetes, musculoskeletal pain, cancer, heart diseases, and so on. Share with you:

  287. Ellen says:

    At several lists on the internet I see Nature’s Life CLO categorized as “good”. But on this list it’s put on the best-list. Has this brand changed something? Hope someone could tell me about that, thanks in advance.

  288. Jennifer says:

    Hi, Has anyone had experience with giving this to a baby? My 2 year old, husband and I take it. I nurse as well but am thinking that I want to start our 3 month old on it too.
    Thank you for any advice!!

  289. Mia says:

    I just purchased Greenpasture’s butter oil/cod liver oil blend GEL, but there are no recommended dose on the label or how much vitamins it contain? I’m so confused why are they so not informative??? what are the recommended doses of butter oil/cod liver oil GEL for children and pregnant women??? I can’t get the answer please reply ((

  290. Kim says:

    Please, can you recommend a chewable CLO for kids? My son will not take liquid, I just can’t fight it every day. One other person asked this a couple of years ago and there was no response. Thanks!

  291. Bianca says:

    Hmmm… well I got a crazy-bad rash from Green Pastures! I’m trying Nordic Naturals next as I’ve read others didn’t have a bad reaction with it.

  292. jill says:

    Please recommendations for kids. I haven’t found a way for my kids to take it becaause the capsules are too big and mixing the oil with strawberry jelly doesn’t even cover the taste. Any suggestions?

  293. IS cod liver oil capsiles good for the mind and body? Iv been taking them for a about 3 years now.

  294. Laurie says:

    I am about to start making the baby formula and ordered the Green Pastures Blue Ice unflavored cod liver oil but the company sent arctic mint flavor. Do you know if infants will take the mint flavor or do I need to return it and get the unflavored?

  295. Rebecca says:

    Hi i was wondering if i am taking the full dose for a breastfeeding woman and still exclusivly breastfeeding my 6 month old do i also need to start giving my baby cod liver oil as well or will he be getting enough from my milk? Also I am planning on getting pregnant again in a few months and i will still be breastfeeding, do i need to up the dosage?

    And lastly i have read a lot about people making their own butter oil, what are your thoughts on this? Do you have any recipe for this that you would recommend?

    Thank you

    • Tim Boyd says:

      Starting your baby on cod liver oil would be a good thing at this point. We strongly recommend spacing children at least 2 years. Breastfeeding while pregnant and having children too close together is too much of a strain on a woman’s body.

  296. Catherine says:

    I just purchased Carlson super 1000mg soft gels per WP site recommendations. I am surprised to see that they contain soybean oil. Your thoughts would be appreciated.

  297. Allison says:

    Does grassfed ghee contain vitamin K ? Can that be taken in place of the high vitamin butter oil with CLO? Also is the unfermented CLO you recommend just as good as the fermented CLO?

  298. Priscilla says:

    I tested low for Vitamin D. I am thinking of taking PolarPower Wild Sockeye Salmon Oil (which provides 4,000 IU of Vit. A and 600 IU of Vit. D per teaspoon) along with 1 capsule of Nutrigold Vitamin D3 – 1,000 mg. Totaling 4,000 IU of Vit. A and 1,600 IU of Vit. D per day. Would that be okay?

    • Cher says:

      Synthetic d3 deplete magnesium. Take cod liver oil and magnesium 5 mg per pound of body weight and you d should raise naturally.

  299. Jay says:

    i have FCLO but did not buy butter oil with it. I have some raw grass fed butter that i’ve been taking with the FCLO. Any comments on if that will have the same effect as butter oil? is there any reason i should be taking butter oil instead of just butter with the FCLO?

    any idea how much butter i should take with each teaspoon of FCLO?

  300. Bev Budig says:

    I would like to know the recommended daily amount of the FCLO/Butter oil blend for a woman over 60.

    Thank you.

  301. NS says:

    When will the WAPF address the recent (as of August 2015) findings by several independent labs that the Green Pastures FCLO, is not correctly labeled? This is of great concern to many of us who are members of WAPF. Apparently the livers are not properly fermented, they are not necessarily from cod but some other fish, and there is some type of vegetable oil mixed into to this fish oil. The label ingredients list states only one ingredient: fermented cod liver oil.

    This is truly an urgent matter that needs to be addressed on the front of your webpage.

  302. SM says:

    In the BEST recommended brands list for the United States, the first FIVE are actually the SAME brand, just linked to different sellers, complete with websites/links and phone numbers, with one of those listings being WAPF chapter leaders who sell it. In lists for other parts of the world, this same brand is also repeated many times under different bullet points. With such a list, I would feel guilty buying any other brand except the one brand listed over and over again. Why are some brands listed just once without so much as a website or phone number? Why is each brand not listed equally, one for each bullet point of a given category in a given part of the world? The GOOD category for the United States actually lists one brand for each bullet point which is much less confusing for the reader, however there is not one website or contact number to order their products. Then there is the one company listed in the BEST category with absolutely NO website or contact information, which is listed immediately after the FIVE listings of the same brand directly above it. Why list one brand over and over again without so much as providing basic information on other brands?

  303. Qadhi says:

    I took cod liver oil with milk.. is it harmful?? i’ve heard that it causes skin problems with milk..

  304. Kle says:

    Hello, I have at home two bottles of Green pasture Fermented Cod Liver Oil Cinnamon flavored. One is already opened and it wasn’t in the fridge. The other one is still closed – was never opened. On the label there is the manufacture date of June 2013. I was checking the liquid and putting the bottle upside down I have noticed that there are some dark shadows sticking on the bottom and in some parts of the bottle. Is this still good to take or not? Please help.

    I already wrote to the Green pasture and the answer was unclear to me:

    “The fermented oils will continue to digest, or change, over time which may change the color, taste, smell or texture. Refrigeration will slow this process, but all of our oils are very stable and do not require refrigeration; even after opening. We do not believe these oils are even capable of going bad or becoming rancid.

    Previously we used an expiration date that was dated two years out from the date of manufacture.

    If these were in my cabinet I would probably try and make a determination at that point, but I have bottles that are older than that, that I have used with no problem.”

    What do you think? The sediments can be the cinnamon itself sticking at the bottom of the bottle? I have tried it today and has more “fishy” flavor that it used to and the flavor of stevia and cinnamon seems reduced or almost gone. I don’t want to poison myself… Please help.

  305. Geo says:


    Can you please inform me about Moller’s cod liver oil ? reccommend it ?

    Many thanks


  306. Martha Ayers says:

    When comparing natures answer vs. Nutrapro, which one would you reccomend?

    • Will says:

      Nature’s Answer has soy in it.

      The real question is comparing Nutrapro to Rosita as they are both additive free. Nutrapro centrifuges their oil whereas Rosita has an ancient technique for extraction. Comparing them nutritionally, the only real variation appears to be in the DHA/EPA content. This difference might be insignificant though since they are largely on par. But Rosita also has a disclaimer that its nutritional content may vary. Not sure if Nutrapro has otherwise been able to standardize its nutritional content.

      Rosita – EPA 510mg/tsp DHA 700mg/tsp
      Nutrap – EPA 700mg/tsp DHA 500mg/tsp

      I am currently using Rosita with Organic 3 Butter Oil. It’s too soon for me to give any feedback. I am curious about what people who’ve used both would say. Especially since there is a $16.00 difference between the two (8 fl. oz. bottles). Organic 3 Butter Oil is also over twice the cost of Nutrapro Butter Oil. O3 costs $7.5/oz whereas Nutrapro costs $3.38/oz and you can get it down to $3.07/oz if you buy the bigger size.

      The products appear to be the same despite the big cost difference.

  307. Sylvia says:

    What about cod liver canned in its own oil and juice – those are sold by diverse brands, Ruegenfisch, King Oscar and others. They seem most natural. I love the taste and use them on bread, although mindful and use one can up over 5 days or more (keeping it in a half pint mason jar in the freezer).

    What is your opinion on that? Thank you! Sylvia

  308. Sarah says:

    Blue Ice fermented cod liver oil is available from Not sure about other countries.

  309. Tamara says:

    I’ve been buying Carlson’s CLO from Whole Foods but I see that you don’t recommend their liquid formula. It’s convenient for me to shop there so I’m wondering if you have any knowledge of the 365 Norwegian CLO capsules or the Barleans Fresh Catch CLO and if so what your opinion is on those products comparatively.
    Thanks in advance!

  310. Stefanie Walraven says:

    I am wanting to start making the homemade raw milk baby formula for my 2 month old. I know the recipe calls for unflavored fermented cod liver oil. I have been told that the unflavored cod liver oil is pretty strong. Can I use the cinnamon flavor or would it be safer to use the unflavored?

    • Tim Boyd says:

      Some may be allergic to cinnamon. When mixed with other things in the formula the taste would not be strong.

    • Eliana says:

      Hello Stefani, Did you start homemade formula for your baby>? are you getting the ingredients from Radiantlife? how is it going to far? I have a 4 mths baby, I do breastfeed her, but I do supplement with regular formula, I would like to know from somebody tha is doing the homemade formula.
      Thanks a lot.

  311. Kristen says:

    I’ve been taking the FCLO/high vitamin butter oil blend in capsules because I can’t stomach the taste in liquid form (I’m pregnant) I’ve been taking about 4 capsules a day but I’m seeing here that 20/day are recommended when you’re pregnant.. at that rate the bottle would only last a week! That’s about $250/month on FCLO alone! I’m wondering what else can be done to get the levels of these vitamins recommended while pregnant.

  312. Jeremy Golnick says:

    “The high-vitamin fermented cod liver oil is sold as a food so does not contain vitamin levels on the label. However, after numerous tests, the approximate values of A and D have been ascertained at 1900 IU vitamin A per mL and 390 IU vitamin D per mL.”

    Are these values for the FCLO only or the FCLO/HVBO combination? If they’re for the FCLO only, what is the vitamin content of the HVBO? Also, what is the vitamin K content of each?

    Thank you

  313. Heather says:

    Do you have a recommendation for an alternative to cod liver oil? I’m very allergic to cod

  314. Bob Dooley says:

    You recommend Green Pasture Products: Blue Ice High-Vitamin Fermented Cod Liver Oil as one of the best. Have you read “A Summary of Dr. Kaayla Daniel’s New Report on Green Pasture’s Fermented Cod Liver Oil and Butter Oil”? Please read it at the link below and let me know if this problem still exists please

  315. dorian says:

    speaking of historical use of cod liver oil,i just read an article about the last ww1 survivor-110 years old.
    “Claude Choules attributed his long life to “A little cod liver oil, good eating habits and regular physical exercise” and he drank little alcohol. Faithful to the end to his reputation of enjoying a joke, he would say that the best way to live a long life was “to keep breathing.”

  316. Sara Dolph says:

    Hi there,

    I have vitamin D deficiency, so I ordered a bottle of cod liver oil earlier – before I saw this article, unfortunately. I see that you have Carlson Labs capsules listed under “Good”, but you don’t have their bottled oil (“Carlson Labs Super D Omega-3 Natural Vitamin D”) listed. Does that mean it’s not a good source of vitamin D for me?

    I really appreciate whatever response you can provide!

    Thank you,

    • Pierre Haavik says:

      Carlson get their cod liver oil from Norwegian Møller, worlds first and oldest in cod liver oil. Missionaries from Norway brought cod liver oil to the mission field as medicine. Unfortunately the vitamins in cod liver oil is no longer the natural as it used to be. Due to better removing toxins from the oil the process has changed and only E vitamins is retained naturally. The A and D vitamins is removed in the process and has been added after processing with synthetic A and D vitamins.

      Put pressure on Møller (Carlson) to bring back the all natural cod liver oil.

  317. Elsa says:

    Is is safe to take cod liver oil in late pregnancy? I am 36 weeks pregnant and have heard that fish-sourced omegas can cause the uterus to relax, which can hinder going into labor or prolong labor itself.

  318. Allen says:

    When I was a child, my parents gave me emulsified cod liver oil, which I thought tasted great! I am looking to start taking CLO as a supplement for health & wellness, and am curious which form is beat – natural, emulsified, or fermented.
    I have read that the vitamins are absorbed more readily in oil, rather than emulsion. Does that mean I would be wasting the CLO if taking emulsified?

  319. Alimakki says:

    Please can u tell me the best most natural cod liver oil in kosher capsules

  320. Debby says:

    I was wondering if there is a place to get cod liver oil in Israel?

  321. Tonie says:

    1) I’m a non-pregnant adult so my dosage per your 2015 guidelines would be 1 tsp. per day. Why do all the RDA’s on the bottles for your recommended products say to take 1/2 tsp. per day?

    2) If you use the Nutri Pro recommendation, the butter oil is separate from the CLO. So if I followed the bottles recommendations I’d be taking 1/2 tsp. of Nutri Pro CLO and 1 TBSP of their butter oil. That doesn’t sound right. How are we supposed to figure out your recommended dose if we buy the Nutri Pro with the CLO and Butter Oil sold in separate bottles? How much of each? This looks like a better value than the Green Pastures, so I’d like to buy this one if someone here can help me figure out how much to take when they are separated.

    Thank you!

  322. Jose says:

    I am just wondering what are the dosages recommended of the Rosita Cod Liver Oil as it has higher Omega 3 and I could not find what are the Omega 3 (either EPA and DHA) dogs recommended. Thanks.

  323. Dexter says:

    From what I’m gathering, Dr. Price recommended FCLO/HVBO in divided doses throughout the day, at least
    in treatment of tooth decay. I haven’t noticed on your website any mention of divided doses for the two products. In a healthy person, is there a significant benefit to dividing the daily doses of FCLO and/or HVBO, or is a single daily dose nearly or entirely as good? Does the thinking change if a person has an acute condition? What about if a person has something on the order of an autism spectrum disorder?

  324. Eliana says:

    Hello, so I do breastfeed my baby, I would like to know which one of the blue ice should I get fermented CLO nongelatin or blue ice royal fermented/clo? and the dosage please. thanks a lot

  325. R.RAVICHANDRAN says:


  326. Evelyn says:

    Do you know how much iodine is in COD liver oil?

  327. Ruby says:

    We seem to suffer from bleeding problems- menstrual flooding and nosebleeds (my daughter). Seems to be set off after taking Cod liver oil. We eat good quality butter, some meat and i drink nettle tea.
    Should we be able to balance the cod liver oil by stepping up vit K/good animal fats to balance the effects?

  328. Pierre Haavik says:

    I do not find any reference to MØller cod liver oil from Norway, they have made it for more than 100 years. One post above aks about it, however I see no reply. Missionaries from Norway used to take it to foreign countries as medicine.

    I grew up on it, however I have heard rumors that they are processing it differently now and adding man made vitamins. If true, is it still good to take. Have you tested it?

    Please let us know.

  329. johan says:

    “The high-vitamin fermented cod liver oil is sold as a food so does not contain vitamin levels on the label. However, after numerous tests, the approximate values of A and D have been ascertained at 1900 IU vitamin A per mL and 390 IU vitamin D per mL.”

    Are these values for the FCLO only or the FCLO/HVBO combination? If they’re for the FCLO only, what is the vitamin content of the HVBO? Also, what is the vitamin K content of each?

    Thank you

  330. Diane says:

    Any thoughts on Pure Encapsulations CLO? vitamin A is 1800 iu and vitamin d is 180 iu (naturally occuring)…

    thank you.

  331. Stephanie says:

    Is it okay to take the capsules instead of the liquid? Will I get the same benefits? I noticed that green pastures has capsules as well as bottles of the liquid.

  332. Marisa says:

    I’m a little confused: Are Rosita and Nutrapro considered high vitamin, or would taking those require the higher doses, as in twice as much as the high-vitamin brands? Thank you!

  333. Kay says:

    A question: I am a farmer I spend quite a lot of time in the sun. I would like to take the cod liver oil, but do I take it only on days I am not outside alot? I am wanting to remineralize teeth

Leave a reply

© 2015 The Weston A. Price Foundation for Wise Traditions in Food, Farming, and the Healing Arts.