Concerns About Fermented Cod Liver Oil

The Weston A. Price Foundation has recently received several inquiries about the possibility of rancidity in fermented cod liver oil. After conducting our own due diligence, we have concluded that these concerns are unfounded.

Latest concerns are addressed in this report – QUESTIONS ABOUT FERMENTED COD LIVER OIL

MARKERS OF RANCIDITY
Green Pasture, the manufacturer of fermented cod liver oil, tests every batch for the generally accepted markers of oxidation or rancidity. These tests are performed by MidWestern Laboratories, a large, respected, certified laboratory with extensive experience in this testing.
These three markers are:
a. peroxide value (PV) (first level oxidation)
b. anisidine (AV) value (second level oxidation)
c. malondialdehyde (MDA or TBARS) (third level oxidation)

Lot Number
Peroxide (meg/kg fat)
P-Anisdine

TBA-TBARS (mg/kg)

C050716132LG
C0103111405PO
C0705141404PO
CO603271404PO
C0705141405PO
C1905081403
C22091213LG
C81221122GY
C190710132LG
C170710131LG

32.1
4

3.9
20.7
8.9
9.7
13.6
12.9

22
9
11
16
6
18
18
6
6
0.49

0.55

1.59
0.56
0.84
0.43
0.21
0.38

The Certificates of Analysis for these tests are available on request.

In addition, the Weston A. Price Foundation sent a sample of Green Pasture Fermented cod liver oil to Dr. Martin Grootveld, at the Leicester School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences. Leicester. U.K. Dr. Grootveld is a Member of the Editorial Boards of Bio Analytical Techniques and International Journal of Medical and Clinical Research. This laboratory looks for markers other than PV, AV and TBARS as signs of oxidation or rancidity. As per Dr. Grootveld’s report, his laboratory found no markers of rancidity in the fermented cod liver oil.

COD LIVER OIL FATTY ACID ANALYSIS RESULTS (Molar % of Total Fatty Acid Content):

Total Unsaturated:
Total Saturated:
Total Mono-unsaturated and Di-unsaturated:
Total Saturated, Mono-unsaturated and Di-unsaturated:
Total Omega-3:
Docosahexaenenoic acid (DHA, 24:6):
Eicosopentaenenoic acid (EPA, 22:5):
Other Omega-3:
Total Diacylglycerols (sn-1,2 and sn-1,3):
sn-1,2-Diacylglycerols: 1.76%
sn-1,3-Diacylglycerols:

64.05%
35.95%
42.39%
78.34%
21.66%
6.16%
9.24%
6.26%
3.29%
1.76%
1.53%

Lipid Oxidation Products (LOPs):
(1) Conjugated Hydroperoxydienes (CHPDs), otherwise known as ‘Lipid Peroxides’

cis,trans-Conjugated hydroperoxydienes:
trans,trans-Conjugated hydroperoxydienes:
(2) Aldehydes
trans-2-Alkenals:
cis,trans-2-Alkenals:
trans,trans-Alka-2,4-dienals:
4-Hydroxy-trans-2-alkenals:
4,5-Epoxyaldehydes:
n-Alkanals:
Core aldehydes:
n.d.
n.d.

n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.

Abbreviations: n.d., none detectable.

Here is a link to the Certificate of Analysis from Dr. Grootveld: http://www.westonaprice.org/wp-content/uploads/13GrootveldReport.pdf

AMINE TESTS
Certain parties have also accused the fermented cod liver oil of being “putrid.” This probably comes from a misunderstanding about the nature of fermentation. When oil is removed from cod livers using high heat and chemicals—the industrial process used by most cod liver oil producers in Europe—the result is a “brown, industrial oil” that is both rancid and putrid, and requires considerable filtering and refining to clean it up and create a light yellow oil. (In this process, most of the natural vitamins are removed and are replaced with synthetic vitamins.)

A small portion of European cod liver oil is produced by extracting the livers as soon as the fish are brought up from cold, deep waters. The livers are put in pans at room temperature and the rapid change in temperature causes the release of some of the oils from the livers. This results in a natural yellow oil, with natural vitamins, called extra virgin cod liver oil. The livers must not be left too long or they begin to rot, and the oil turns brown. (Because this process is not very efficient at extracting all the oil, the livers are sent for industrial processing after the initial release of the natural yellow oil.)

This is not what happens during fermentation, a process where the whole livers are put in airtight vats with a starter and salt so that rancidity is avoided. The fermentation process causes the cells to release all the oil and natural vitamins. The resulting oil is also brown.

Those not familiar with the fermentation process may honestly assume that any oil that is brown is also “putrid” or “rancid.”

To test for whether an oil is “putrid,” scientists measure amine levels in the oil, particularly amines called putrescine and cadavarine. Green Pasture routinely tests their cod liver oil for these amines. Here are the results for various amines, in ppm, for 2014:

amine_tab
These values are routinely low or non-detectible. Copies of the Certificates of Analysis are available upon request.

AMINES IN OTHER FERMENTED FOODS
It should be noted that many fermented foods contain amines, including cadaverine and putrescine, often at levels considerably higher than those found in fermented cod liver oil.

Here are typical values, in ppm, for some strong cheeses, which are often consumed in considerable amounts. Obviously humans can tolerate considerable levels of amines, including cadavarine and putrescine, in fermented foods.

amine_ferments

Likewise, fermented fish sauces and other fermented fish products—consumed throughout the world–contain considerable levels of amines:

amine_fish

It is clear that traditional diets contained various amines considered markers of “putrification.” Therefore the small levels found in fermented cod liver oil should not be considered a problem.

CONCLUSION
The Weston A. Price Foundation has performed an appropriate due diligence investigation and has found no credible evidence of rancidity or putrefaction in the Green Pastures fermented CLO. We continue to endorse this product.

TESTING IN 2015
Our main interest lies in the levels of fat-soluble vitamins—A, D and K—in various foods. Our focus for 2015 will be testing various foods for levels of these vitamins. We will test egg yolks, cheeses, butter, lard, beef fat and liver raised in various ways (industrial, organic and pasture-fed) as well as sea foods such as fish eggs and cod liver oil. If possible we will also test fats that were prized by native peoples, such as bear fat, beaver tail fat and seal oil.

51 Responses to Concerns About Fermented Cod Liver Oil

  1. Karen Dunn says:

    Hi,
    Can you please help me? My significant other is vegan, has been for about 40 years. He developed a tremor in his right thumb 4 years ago and with progression of symptoms, was diagnosed last year with Parkinson’s. He is still in the early stages and we are trying to halt or at least slow down this process with natural foods and supplements. He has been low in vitamin D and magnesium, not sure about vitamin A. A cellular study showed he is low in omega 3 fatty acids per his functional medicine doctor. He is also chronically borderline low on his hemoglobin, despite normal iron and ferritin levels. I am looking for a very high quality source of omega 3 and vitamin D for him. He is currently taking a product with 660mg of EPA and 30 mg of DHA with the source stating anchovy and sardine. I do not know how pure this product is, as it is a product sold in the functional medicine clinic we attend for his physician. It does state it “meets or exceeds cGMP quality standards”. Do you feel the product you endorse might be better for him?
    Thank you for your time!
    Karen

    • Sesselja K S Karlsdóttir says:

      Hi. Might be helpful to you, see: DrPermutter.com and also his latest book Brain Health.

      Best whishes
      Sesselja ( Iceland)

    • Bethanne Elion says:

      I would suggest looking into Andrew Cutler’s work on mercury toxicity. According to what I have read (I have mercury issues myself so have read quite a lot on the subject) there may be a link between Parkinsons and mercury. It may be worth doing the proper hair testing and looking at the protocol on chelation.

    • Becky says:

      This is a very good resource for help like that: https://www.facebook.com/groups/MagnesiumAdvocacy/

    • Scott says:

      You may want to have him checked for sleep disorder …does he snore? IF so I would suggest a sleep study and an intraoral appliance that addresses Peroxynitrite damage ….

    • Nick Stanton says:

      I am in a similar situation to your significant other. Except I’m not vegan. I would be happy to correspond by email with you about my journey and learning, if you are interested. My email address is ngstanton at gmail.com (leave out the spaces and add the @ sign).

    • Sue says:

      Look into l-dopa or mucuna prurians as dietary supplement. I have pituitary problems that are treated with Parkinson’s meds (dostinex, cabergoline, etc). For quite a while I was able to be off meds and maintain lab results. My endocrinologist couldn’t believe it. I partially got lazy and always taking the supplements, plus a few other things so I’m no longer doing that, but it did definitely help. Something worth looking into.

    • Victor says:

      Karen,

      I would certainly try the Green Pasture FCLO and Butter Oil combo. I actually use their Infused Coconut Oil, which has the FCLO, High Vitamin Butter Oil, and Skate Oil infused in Virgin Coconut Oil. The VCO is a great carrier, adds its own health benefits, and helps mask the smell and taste of the other oils.

      For many years now, people have reported miraculous results from these Green Pasture products, and of course CLO in general has a very long history of health benefits. Everyone has different body chemistry, so we don’t know until we try it. For me, I do not like the smell or taste of any of their products, but they work like magic for my health. And I only need very little… taking less than half a teaspoon a day. Again, everyone is different.

      Good luck to you.
      Victor

  2. Amy says:

    Looking forward to your response to http://drkaayladaniel.com/are-you-hooked-on-fermented-cod-liver-oil/
    And whatever she is saying in the eBook. People are going nuts about it.

  3. Blake says:

    Parkinson’s disease is most likely due to prions.
    Research eradicating prions and do what you are doing to boost the immune system.
    Good Luck.

    • I-Ju Lin says:

      “Parkinson’s disease is most likely due to prions.” What’s the research back up for this statement? I know prions are the possible cause of mad cow disease but not parkinson’s?

  4. Maria MAIDANOU says:

    Hello,

    I sympathise with the condition you are facing and not being a physician or in any way related to the medical profession, I can only offer random bits of information that I have collected for a friend’s father who suffers from Parkinsons.
    Firstly,a very good alternative source of omega-3 is organic flaxseed oil,considering that your other half is a vegan.Secondly, I would recommend removing anything to do with fluoride from his daily routine,may that be toothpaste or drinking water.As regards VITAMIN D,sun exposure is the key.
    Finally,I can only say that you shouldn’t expect answers from people who endorse products or services.You have to do your own research,which I understand can be very time-consuming and mind-consuming.
    My friend’s father has resorted to LEVODOPA,which I see as a way with no return,since it has caused him hallusinations,violent behaviour.I do not know what his condition would be like without this medication,but I believe a holostic-naturopathic approach might have been better to start with.
    Wishing you the best insight and enlightment to dal with this.

  5. Kris Johnson says:

    Karen, The fermented cod liver oil would be a good source of vitamin D and omega-3 polyunsaturated fats. Your friend might be interested in reading The Vegetarian Myth – food, justice, and sustainability by Lierre Keith, who was vegan and developed serious health issues that cleared up with eating animals products raised in a humane and sustainable manner. I would rather see someone eat sardines rather than rely on the processed omega-3 supplement made from sardines. The my website for more info.

  6. Ian Gregson says:

    This is a huge and difficult subject that I’ve been looking into for my father – basically I’d say the two first things are to end the vegan diet because that will be a major contributor – and start taking a lot of coconut oil – Wilderness Family Naturals or Green Pastures are the best ones we have found.

    Ian Gregson
    Wellington Chapter
    Weston A Price Foundation

    http://www.wapfwellington.org.nz

  7. Donna says:

    I recommend reading “Stop Parkin’ and Start Livin'” by John Coleman. He used various modalities, but he does highly recommend Bowen Therapy as an integral part of any Parkinson programme. Check out http://www.bowtech.com for a practitioner near you.

  8. NS says:

    Unfortunately this post does not address the presence of “vegetable oil” in the Green Pastures FCLO. Nor does it address the concerns raised in the VP of WAPFs board of director’s report that the labs WAPF used are questionable.

    A response to that report is urgently necessary.

  9. Mariya Dolgopolova says:

    The regulated pharmaceutical industry isn’t any better. Worse, actually because people die by the thousands. They pretty much regulate themselves anyway, the FDA is a joke. Everywhere you go there will be crooks and there will be honest people. We all just have to keep our vigilance and start on top of things.

  10. KF says:

    WAPF also needs to address the claim of pollock being used, not cod. The WAPF test results only tell us that their lab says the oil isn’t rancid. But what kind of oil is it really??? Rancid or not, if it actually is not even cod liver oil we have a real problem here!

  11. Paul Davies says:

    My feelings about the speed that the WAPF crew have acted regarding this serious situation could be described as incredulous. The fact that Kayla’s report pretty much blows your reply out of the water is an indictment of the ability of the board members of WAPF to discern even basic scientific data.

    Clearly, the lack of transparency of the manufacturer is of great concern. It actually appears that his so-called fermentation method is really just a method to hide the putrefaction levels of this product.

    I am quite furious with WAPF, even more so with myself for trusting you, for your continuation of support of this rancid product. I have been buying it for my autistic son for around 3 years now and it is a great financial burden, and it now appears to contain byproducts harmful to both of us.

    It’s time to pull your fingers out and step up, and do what heroes like Mary Enig have done, by protecting people from the machinations setting out to harm people.

    Your testing does nothing to refute what Kayla has uncovered.

  12. Dave says:

    The four steps suggested above would appear to be a very prudent way forward.

  13. Megan says:

    I do trust that the WAPF does its due diligence, as it is a highly reputable and respected organization. My main concern is the high vitamin D2 content. I was unaware of this until this ‘oilgate’ came out over the weekend. My labs for serum d3 are constantly low, despite adequate sunshine and religious intake of fclo. I’m now concerned that the high D2 amount has brought my d3 levels down. Since this oil is recommended for our little ones, I need to know that they are getting the proper amounts of fat soluble vitamins, as well as omegas, dha/epa. I was blissfully unaware of the vitamin contents, assuming that the WAPF had recommended this product based on the high vitamin content.
    If we are concerned about the vitamin content for a small child, which brand of clo would be best to switch to in the meantime? is there any chance that they will bring back the old Blue Ice (non-fermented) high vitamin clo?

  14. TOG says:

    According to Wikipedia and their references, Alaska Pollock *IS* cod.

    “Gadus is a genus of demersal fish in the family Gadidae, commonly known as cod, although there are additional cod species in other genera.The best known member of the genus is the Atlantic cod.

    Until recently, three species in the genus were recognized. Modern taxonomy also includes a fourth one, the Alaska pollock (Gadus (=Theragra) chalcogrammus), which is not separate from the Norway pollock.[2][3] ”

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gadus
    they have a couple references in their that folks can look up if they want.

  15. NS says:

    David T., I hope the WAPF leadership has read your post. You may actually want to print out your post and mail it to them. You raise excellent points. The conflict of interest here is just too huge to ignore.

    What motive does Dr. Daniel have for making her report public. All involved acknowledge that she initially made it available to the WAPF leadership.

    What motive does WAPF have in denying any validity to Dr. Daniel’s report? I think everyone knows the answer to this question. Unless they respond in the manner you suggest.

  16. Jennifer says:

    Did anyone else besides me notice that thus article is dated Feb.23, 2015?

    • NS says:

      Jennifer, I didn’t notice it and thanks for pointing that out. I did read elsewhere that WAPF’s testing of the FCLO was from back in the beginning of the year, when they had access to Dr. Daniel’s report. What is truly sad is that I just received an email from WAPF in response to this controversy (of August 2015) that basically repeating the same information that is in this article. So they are completely falling down on the matter.

      This is a terrible blow to the credibility of WAPF and it’s president. I am sorely disappointed. Still hoping they can rise to the occasion and answer people’s questions and restore trust.

      • Alexandra says:

        You are mistaken. The test that was done earlier in the year by Dr. Martin Grootveld which is published here above was a response to concerns raised that fermented cod liver oil was rancid, not in response to Kaayla Daniel’s recent report that was just released this week. If you read her report, she shares that she didn’t think that neither the test published here, nor Green Pasture Product’s tests were sufficient and continued to test further.

  17. Patty M. says:

    Shame on Green Pastures. Shame on The Weston A. Price Foundation. I am thoroughly disgusted and DONE with both! To think I advised my daughter-in-law to give FCLO from Green Pastures to my Grandson, and she did. It is now in the garbage, and I am reminding myself that the love of money is the root of all evil.

  18. Gary Cohen says:

    While I agree that the WAPF may have compromised itself with its endorsement of Green Pasture FCLO, I think you are overlooking one thing, and may be ignoring another.

    The Green Pasture product that WAPF sent to be tested was in a “Brown glass bottle, unopened” according to the lab report from Martin Grootveld BSc, PhD, FIBMS, CBiol, FSB, FRSC. The report is dated December 12, 2014.

    It turns out that Kaayla Daniel, Ph.D. in her e-book says, “In early February, I sent newly purchased, unopened bottles of unflavored FCLO off to five laboratories in the United States, Norway and the Netherlands for testing.”

    Whatever the results of both their testing, they should be also testing FCLO that has been used as it would be in someone’s home. Once the bottle is opened, air can get in and the oxygen start the process of inducing degradation of the product. Each time some of the oil is removed, more air and oxygen is introduced. After weeks, and months of use, the product could become seriously rancid. Because the FCLO does not have added anti-oxidant preservatives, one should not assume that it could not become rancid.

    The other point is that Dr. Daniel says that the product has more vitamin D2 than D3. This would indicate it has been adulterated. David Wetzel says that rat bioassay is the best way to test for vitamin D. Unfortunately, that assay probably does not differentiate between D2 and D3. D3 is a hormone, and when it comes to hormones, bio-identical is essential. I suspect that most of the studies that claim that vitamin D is toxic were done with D2 and that D3 is less toxic than D2.

    If you want to know more about some of the issues with vitamin D there is a good commentary “The case against ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) as a vitamin supplement,” by Lisa A Houghton and Reinhold Vieth, Am J Clin Nutr 2006;84:694–7. However, it doesn’t deal with the immune modulating issues of D2 vs. D3.

    • Gary Cohen says:

      I have to correct one thing I wrote. It was Mr. Wetzel that claimed that his product contains high levels of vitamin D2. According to Kaayla only one lab reported high levels of D2, and she believes that its testing methods are dubious.

      I am still in the process of reading the entire book by Kaayla. I will also read any statements that come out of the WAPF.

      I also want to make it clear that I strongly disagree with David T. that the WAPF needs a public relations firm. That is what criminal or antisocial corporations as well as politicians do when they want to cover up their misdeeds.

      What is really needed is an objective airing of the facts, and any further research that will clarify the issues with FCLO.

      I urge the WAPF not to try to remove Dr. Daniel from her position as member of the Board of Directors. This will look like a cover up and give us a bad name.

  19. m says:

    This is all very insighful in light of the fact that I had an EXTREMELY bad reaction to the FCLO several years ago. I have not taken it since b/c I was afraid to. This is downright dangerous.

  20. Janeen says:

    im not ready to through the baby out with the bath water just yet. The product HAS HELPED A LOT OF PEOPLE. I know with out a shadow of a doubt that it heals cavities.

    I’ve also experience the stuff go rancid because I left it on the counter too long…which made me feel there was a difference between ‘fermented’ and ‘rancid’. It’s not bad tasting until I mishandle it.

    I personally will not walk away from WAPF because of one issue. Yes I will keep my mind open , but I don’t think we have all the pieces to just write them off completely.

  21. Faye Stevens says:

    I am 66 years old and have been taking this fclo for 3 years. If it weren’t for this product I would not have been able to return
    to teaching ballet and tap at 63. Thank you for making this product.

  22. Dave says:

    Dr. Daniel should be taken to court for this “report”. It is fear mongering, unprofessional and unethical. To name a particular company and use her position within WAPF to possibly be in collusion with a competing product while going on a smear campaign is probably illegal.

    Green Pasture products have not hurt anyone. Her report is libelous and slander. It is overblown and meant to “shock”. This will cause untold damage to Green Pasture and reputation.

    There were other ways to do this. As a Board member of the WAPF, they take votes. That’s how it works. The report also lacks a lot of information. What are the lot numbers of the samples taken? Were they adulterated in any way? We don’t know.

    I see a lawsuit against Dr. Daniels as it probably should. Maybe the FTCLDF can help out?

    She should also be removed from the Boards immediately, in my opinion.

    • Victor says:

      I agree with you 100% Dave. Dr. Daniel is a danger to the community, and is endangering the health of people by scaring them away from products that are helping them.

      The professional people are actually being hurt by their professionalism in addressing this issue. Dr. Chris Masterjohn masterfully dismantles every point in Dr. Daniel’s report, and yet people are still confused because he tip toed around the conclusions. Chris Kresser was so timid in his initial response that he made himself complicit by attempting to find neutral ground. (See my blog for my response to him). Many other bloggers have done the same.

      Dr. Kaayla Daniel cannot plead ignorance. She cannot plead that it was an emotional response. She has been driven by some ulterior motives for a significant amount of time, and has knowingly and willfully misrepresented the facts in order to mislead the public. Green Pasture certainly has a great case here.

  23. Sissaly Ann says:

    I took my Fermented Cod Liver Oil this morning along with my butter oil as I have been doing for the last 9 years.

    I would like to know the source of Dr. Daniel’s FCLO and HVBO. I would also like to know the date they were manufactured. I would like to know more about who funded this as well, as Sally says in “The Oiling of America” Follow the money.

    I called Dave Monday morning and got his voice mail and left a message, he called me back with in 10 minutes, and I had a point by point list of questions about Dr. Daniel’s findings, and he answered all of the questions to my satisfaction, and said that he would be cooperating with any one who would like to test his FCLO and HVBO. I asked about the butter source and he said that it does now come from a family farm that has been in operation for 120 years in Argentina. I suggested he put up a video of the farm and talk about them. He agreed.

    I trust WAPF! I trust Dave Wetzel and Green Pastures! I am confident the board will do the right thing. I approve of the way WAPF Board has responded to this highly charged situation. I think Dave T second comment above has some good suggestions.

  24. Elizabeth Rotman says:

    This is very, very unsettling and upsetting. I have been feeding my three year old twins FCLO since birth and taking it myself. I have now read Dr. Daniel’s ebook and the WAPF response does not address the concerns raised. I will throw out the stock that I have now and will not feed it until all of this is resolved. I hope that the WAPF finds a way to resolve this completely, as my overall trust and willingness to support the organization is very much in question at this point.

    • Dave says:

      Dr. Daniels should answer for this scare-mongering and slander.

      It’s obvious to me she is part of an attempt to scare people into using another product by trashing GP and their perfect reputation. All the tests have shown no toxicity or danger. What are the Lot #s of her samples so we can all be careful? Even her “tests” show mostly safe product and within normal ranges, except for a few.

      Histamines and amines are in many foods. You should throw out your Thai fish sauce and Blue Cheese as well then.

  25. Hello Karen, Please read about Parkinson’s At Pdrecovery.org.
    Dr. Janice and the Parkinsons recovery project has found a method for treating it.
    Itis is totally mind blowing.
    of course you have to use the nutritional advice given here too.

    Lots of blissings
    Sibylle Healinglaughter Dreyer

  26. Jenny says:

    Parkinson’s…do look at Andy Cutler’s work. There is a mercury component to this condition. You also need to look at a Nourishing Traditions diet, The nervous system cannot protect itself without proper fats, including cod liver oil. The myelin sheath is what protects the nerves from damage and a diet void of this for too long could lead to problems. Being a vegan for 40 years fits that category and is likely why he is deficient. Not to say vegan diets don’t benefit some people but they are generally lacking in the products needed to build bone, muscle and nervous systems. Also avoiding vaccines, they contain aluminum and mercury and that will contribute to the Parkinson’s problem. Buy Andy Cutler’s book Amalgam Illness, I promise you won’t regret it. That book saved my health.

  27. Nick Stanton says:

    I think you are very premature in jumping to such a definite conclusion so soon. I have not had time yet to be clear. Did you notice that Dr. Daniel appears to have avoided having her samples tested with the “rat bioassay”.
    David Wetzel spent years finding what he believes is a reliable test. In summarizing his findings he says, “One phrase that this scientist taught me that I think is proving to be more and more true is ‘The only way to test vitamin D is to feed it to rats, rats don’t lie.’ Just because one measures a molecule does not equate to activity.”
    You state, “I have read the initial report.” Have you read anything else?

  28. NS says:

    I was disappointed that the report Ms. Fallon mailed out did not address the question of the presence of trans fats and vegetable oil.

    However, at least Chris Masterjohn has done so: see his comments here:
    http://blog.cholesterol-and-health.com/2015/08/weighing-in-on-fermented-cod-liver-oil.html
    and the relevant paragraph is:
    If the test results are accurate, then the fatty acid must come from one of the following: 1) the diet of the fish, 2) endogenous synthesis by the fish, 3) microbial production, 4) adulteration.

    I find 1 and 2 less plausible than 3 and 4 simply because if 1 or 2 were true, the fatty acid should be regularly found in these fish at similar concentrations, though I would not consider them impossible. Given how little we know about the microbial process involved, and the rapidity with which our understanding of microbes is constantly expanding, 3 strikes me as quite plausible. 4 is certainly simpler, because it is well established from common experience that producers may adulterate their products. Fraud is a major accusation, however, so while evidence of its possibility should by no means be swept under the rug, it makes sense to me that Green Pasture deserves the chance to respond and the benefit of the doubt until dialog or debate can lead to a firm conclusion.

    • NS says:

      I think it’s also possible that Green Pastures may get tinned fish livers, and they could be packed in vegetable oil which could be a source of unintended contamination. No one has considered that possibility.

  29. NS says:

    With regard to the labeling of the product, I believe the best authority would be the FDA and I wish that Ms. Fallon would provide references w/r/t labeling that are from the FDA.
    http://www.fda.gov/Food/DietarySupplements/default.htm

  30. Judy says:

    For those of you who ask “What motive does Dr. Daniel have for making her report public” – apply some common sense. Dr. Daniel HAS a motive. It just hasn’t come to light yet. And we are witnessing a power struggle. Daniels, by publishing this strident “expose” has damaged WAPF in her attempt to destroy Green Pasture. I consider Daniel’s report – with the labs redacted and unidentifiable and the trashy writing style as well as her speculations and theories – to be UNcredible. If some “nobody”, rather than the respected Daniels, had published this trash, would any of you have paid any attention to it, let alone accepted its claims hok, line, and sinker?

    After reading Daniel’s “expose” and judging it to be slanderous and without merit, I placed an order for FLCO/BO with Green Pasture. I am amazed by so many long-time users of FCLO who now believe they have been duped into consuming rancid and putrid oil. How incredulous you are. Don’t you recognize a snake-oil salesman – Daniels – when you see one? Stop acting like lemmings!

    As for Dr. Daniel’s motive, I can think of one. Green Pasture has been successful in developing and marketing a product. Its competitors aren’t willing to do what GP has done and compete fairly. And so a competitor COULD ruin GPs reputation and drive GP into bankruptcy, then buy out the business, declare they’ve cleaned up operations, and sell FCLO themselves. Perhaps Daniel is a tool being used by GPs competitors. Note: I am speculating. This is not an accusation. It is simply one of probably a dozen possibilities we know nothing about at this time, and may never know.

    Fallon’s response to Daniels report is satisfactory. And the Wise Traditions Winter Q will discuss this issue IN FULL, so get a grip on yourselves and withhold your accusations and judgment until then.

  31. Craig says:

    Dr. Kaayla raised some good questions, but unfortunately, her report was rather unscientific. She sets out with the goal of proving rancidity, and so would naturally try and interpret her results in a way that supports her theory.

    She says she doesn’t expect to find certain rancid biomarkers, but tests for them anyway – odd don’t you think??

    I would like to know about the quinone/ vitamin K content, as well as the tans-fat content as this is something that concerns me, the rest of the report is vague and at best inconclusive. You can read an analysis here: http://www.thehealthcloud.co.uk/green-pastures-rancid-report-analysis

  32. macnelly Rosefort says:

    My wife and I just started to take fermented cod liver oil recommended by my doctor, should I be concern?

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