Why You Don’t Want to Put Aluminum into Your Bloodstream
How does liquid behavior at healthy cell surfaces affect critical functions in living cells? Do recently discovered physical properties of water better explain elements of blood flow physiology—the mysterious way the blood flows through our narrow veins?
Many modern diseases are called idiopathic—cause unknown. Biologists are realizing that it is time to revisit basic cell physiology—how do things really work? Exciting articles by Drs. Stephanie Seneff and Robert Davidson1 suggest that tissues work in a highly coordinated manner, using a physics hitherto unexplored. This article examines the causes of sudden death or heart attack—which likely depend on our fuller understanding of water structure and physics—and sheds a new light on the common medical practice of vaccination.
Before we can understand the differences between plasma—the solution that forms our blood—and lymph—the solution between our tissues outside of blood vessels—we need to examine what is now known about water itself. Surface tension (ST) is best seen where water forms an interface (Figure 1).
ST tends to behave like a “skin,” rounding the contact surface. Adding salt increases the ST, raising the drop and making the contact point at a larger angle. Soap is called a surfactant, as it lowers ST, and reduces the contact angle.
What is surface tension and how do you measure it? ST is understood to represent cohesion, where water molecules H2O exert a stronger attraction for each other than they do for air or for waxed paper. They exert a pulling, contracting force, against which a counter force is needed, “f,” as indicated in Figure 2.
The most practical way to measure ST is with a tiny bore glass tube, where glass is wetted by most water solutions (Figure 3). The exact weight of the water risen inside can be calculated from its volume and density, and this force exactly counters the pull of the surface tension on the glass wall. The surface tension can easily be calculated knowing the height and the diameter of the bore. For a liquid like mercury which does not wet glass, placing a tube into it will depress the surface, and a different calculation is necessary.
Think about familiar ST examples to get a better view of these forces (Table 1). Notice that in pure water, bubbles do not last very long, as the high ST breaks them.
Figure 2: Diagram of water cohesion pulling a wire with force “f.” Redrawn from F. Daniels & R. Alberty. 1961. Physical Chemistry. John Wiley & Sons.
Figure 3: Measuring surface tension. Redrawn from F. Daniels & R. Alberty. 1961. Physical Chemistry. John Wiley & Sons.
Mercury with a very high ST forms tight rounded drops with high contact angles. Imagine breaking a mercury thermometer, and then trying to coax a droplet back into the tiny bore of the glass. The drop would roll off the top, rather than enter. You would need high pressure to overcome its ST, to force the mercury into a narrow glass bore, whereas water would establish a cohesion with the glass and be drawn quickly inside.
We employ soap in washing because it “wets” surfaces like fats and waxes, making them easier to suspend and rinse away. Many proteins also lower ST, and we cook with them to make a persistent foam, such as a meringue or soufflé.
Another odd property of liquids and solids is how two substances that do not mix can be suspended, as oil in water, or as a gel. One forms the continuous phase, the other is finely divided into particles or droplets. In a gel (as inside a cell), the solid forms the continuous phase, and the liquid (water) is divided into pockets.
Suspensions are most often made more stable when each droplet or particle has a similar electric charge. The most vital fluid we will discuss is blood, where the vessels are lined with endothelial cells, which like the red blood cells (RBCs) are all coated in a negative charge of about 40-50 millivolts (mv). This charge is called “zeta potential,” (ZP) and acts as a repellent between cells at close distances. It is critical to providing blood fluidity and preventing actual contact between the blood cells and the blood vessel wall. Negatively charged ions or particles are called anions (positive are cations).
Some familiar colloids utilize surfactants as emulsifiers, to stabilize their droplet structures. In making mayonnaise, cooks use the lecithin from a fresh egg yolk to coat the oil droplets; otherwise the emulsion in the bowl would break down into oil and a few bubbles of mustardy-lemon juice. Milk employs many proteins to preserve the suspension of solids and butterfat. Blood also uses albumins and an odd construction of sulfated chains, which favor the formation of water blankets due to water layering behavior.
Many colloids are broken down if either the surfactant is altered (as by pH shift toward acid or basic) or if the zeta potential is diminished. The latter can be reduced by simply adding salt to the colloid, as happens in nature when (anionic) clay suspended by erosion in river water enters the ocean, and the mixing of salt greatly speeds the deposition into off-shore clay sediments. The particular ions that are in the salt can make a huge difference to this effect. Wastewater treatment facilities are required by EPA to remove many suspended colloidal bio-wastes before discharging the water to a river, and they employ alum (aluminum sulfate) to “flocculate” the colloids, precipitating solids so they settle to form sludge, clearing the water for release.
Perhaps the most important aspect of surface tension and “wetting” lies hidden within each protein molecule in our body’s vast array of structures and enzymes. It is the action of surface tension at the “interface” of water and protein, where the question becomes: how much does water “wet” a protein surface?
All proteins have a unique amino acid (AA) sequence, generated by the DNA code. Some of these amino acids are hydrophobic, meaning they are like lipids and repel water (such as alanine, valine and leucine). Others are hydrophilic, meaning they are charged and attract water (such as lysine, histidine and glutamic acid). The hydrophilic amino acids are “wetted” in plasma (Figure 4).
All are parts of the same protein; each exerts forces on the molecule surfaces, which usually means the hydrophilic, wetted parts face outward to the water, and the hydrophobic parts face inward.
Figure 4: “Cartoon of protein hydrophobic interaction” by Treshphrd – Own work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cartoon_of_protein_hydrophobic_interaction.jpg#/media/File:Cartoon_of_protein_hydrophobic_interaction.jpg.
One must understand that as the tension (ST, interfacial) grows or diminishes, the actual shape and thus the function of each protein may change. We need to explore how a change in ST in blood can affect one’s health.
WATER LAYERING BEHAVIOR
All of these properties come into play in balancing the roles of water in living tissues, but we also need to explore very recent studies to understand the relation between cell physiology and Dr. Pollack’s “fourth phase of water.”
Decades ago, Dr. Gerald Pollack of the University of Washington found pure water next to ionized plastic surfaces behaving in a previously “undocumented manner,” forming very thick organized layers.2 These layers exhibit properties of both liquids and solids, can grow to become millions of molecules thick, and develop a negative charge, excluding protons (hydrogen nuclei) into solution as hydronium (acid) ions, H3O+ (Figure 5). Using only energy from incident light or infrared, such sheets exclude most solutes and suspended particles, so Pollack has named these sheets Exclusion Zone (EZ) water, or the fourth phase of water—a liquid crystalline phase, added to gas, liquid and solid.
Figure 5: Diagram of EZ water, by Pollack, G. from http://faculty.washington.edu/ghp/images/stories/
The molecular secret to the EZ water is that it forms hexagonal honeycomb sheets, sequentially staggered over one another (Figure 6). These liquid-crystals form coherent domains, acting in many respects as a single, superconducting quantum unit (Figure 7).
Figure 6. A hypothetical radial cation hexamer. Davidson, Lauritzen & Seneff. 2013. “Biological water dynamics and entropy: a biophysical origin of cancer and other diseases.” Entropy 15: 3822-3876.
Figure 7: Shifted hexagonal layers of EZ water. Redrawn after: Davidson, Lauritzen & Seneff. 2013. “Biological water dynamics and entropy: a biophysical origin of cancer and other diseases.” Entropy 15: 3822-3876; reproduced from Chaplin (2013).
BIOLOGICAL FLUID BEHAVIOR
The biological significance of Pollack’s work, recognized by many and published in 2012 by Seneff and Davidson, cannot be overstated, and helps explain many phenomena we observe in nature.
Consider the evolution of animals from sedentary forms, into types capable of swift movement, requiring at a minimum coordinated muscle and nerve membranes which maintain a displaceable electric charge at all times, and a circulatory system for delivering oxygen and removing carbon dioxide at rates hitherto impossible by earlier biota. To achieve these, animals require cell surfaces that foster the growth of EZ water, as each sheet of structured water acts as a giant anion blanket to provide protection for these delicate charges from solutes and pathogens, and from accidental contact by nearby tissues. It is also possible that EZ domain superconductivity provides and ensures rapid de- and re-polarization over long distances for myelinated axon nerve conduction. This means nerve conduction does not depend merely on the flow of electricity in the salty lymph solution, but the EZ blankets may provide resistance-free “wires” surrounding each nerve cell.
How can we relate what we know about these physical aspects of water to functioning cell physiology? We first must establish a theory of cells cultivating EZ water, then examine ST and the relation of both to the charge (zeta potential) that keeps cells (RBCs) moving through capillaries seemingly too small to allow them to pass through.
CELL SURFACES AND SULFATES
Dr. Stephanie Seneff and her co-authors have explored the interactions of water at interfaces, both inside and outside cells.3,4 Surface anions seem to require sulfate projections, which begin with the often unfairly vilified cholesterol (Figure 8).
Figure 8: Cholesterol sulfate. Robert M. Davidson and Stephanie Seneff, “The Initial Common Pathway of Inflammation, Disease, and Sudden Death,” Entropy 2012, 14, 1399-1442.
This is the soluble (anionic) form of cholesterol, the main job of which is maintaining cell membranes. It forms the lipoproteins (LDL, HDL) which carry healthy lipids to repair membranes everywhere. According to these authors, it is one of our most vital compounds. How does the body synthesize this useful form of cholesterol?
Cholesterol sulfate (Ch-S) is synthesized whenever sufficient dietary sulfur is supplied and sunlight combined, via the enzyme in the capillary endothelium: endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) (Figure 9). As with many energy transformations, the eNOS reaction also depends on the mineral zinc as a coenzyme. Seneff’s extraordinary proposal is critical to explaining how healthy membranes use EZs to maintain their integrity.
Figure 9: Sunlight and sulfation of cholesterol. Robert M. Davidson and Stephanie Seneff, “The Initial Common Pathway of Inflammation, Disease, and Sudden Death,” Entropy 2012, 14, 1399-1442.
What are the properties of the anion sulfate (SO4-2) itself? It is familiar as the minerals gypsum (CaSO4) and Epsom salts (MgSO4) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4). It is classed as a kosmotropic ion—one that “organizes” any nearby proteins. In fact, too much free sulfate organizes water into a gel which will not flow, appropriate inside the cytoplasm, but certainly not in the blood. The kidneys have evolved to excrete excess sulfate so blood levels never rise to this dangerous point.
With 99 percent of our molecules being water, it’s surprising that we don’t just collapse into a puddle! Pollack believes that the main reason our tissues are not liquid is that nearly all the water is maintained in a gelled state by these kosmotropes.
As Seneff notes, “. . . the one big exception to this model is the blood. The blood that courses through our veins is definitely a liquid, and if it were to become gelled it would lead to a no-flow situation and a major catastrophe. This, to me, is the key reason why all these biologically active molecules travel through the blood stream in a sulfated form.”5
Cholesterol sulfate (Ch-S) is found on blood cell surfaces and can deliver sulfate as needed to other complex membrane molecules, without thickening the blood.
Heparan sulfate (Figure 10) is a monomeric subunit of the polysaccharide chain found in all animal tissues. The outermost cell surface forms a fuzzy structure (glycocalyx), made of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs)—with anionic sulfate hydrophilic projections that promote building EZ water. Indeed, the cell membranes use sulfate delivered by Ch-S to build these projections, which have the property of readily absorbing light including infrared, thus building EZ protective blankets.
Figure 10: Structural formula typical for heparan sulfate. Davidson, Lauritzen and Seneff, 2013. “Biological water dynamics and entropy: a biophysical origin of cancer and other diseases.” Entropy 2013, 15: 3822-3876.
Let’s summarize uses for sulfate in tissue maintenance (ignored at present by clinical medicine):
• Sulfated macromolecules perform membrane maintenance—nerve and muscle membrane surfaces are dominated by GAGs.
• EZ water maintenance—the sulfate projections of these huge polymers favor development and stabilization of EZ water.
• Lysosome digestion—inside cells, damaged molecules and structures are regularly maintained by lysosomes, which ingest then digest the damaged or foreign material and then recycle the basic nutrients (sugars, amino and fatty acids). Indications are that with inadequate sulfate this digestion fails and long-term damage builds up, offering a strong potential explanation for idiopathic nerve and brain aging diseases.
In their original report, Davidson and Seneff show electron micrographs, taken by Bleau and others,6 of RBCs under the stress of a diluted plasma solution. The first case shows RBCs in extreme distress, spheres with prickly projections owing to the osmotic pressure. To the second case has been added a very dilute solution of Ch-S, (cholesterol sulfate, 0.00001 M), and the RBCs appear as typical smooth, hollow doughnut-shaped cells, dramatically illustrating the protective nature of Ch-S.
How can these RBCs, seven microns in diameter, pass easily through capillaries only four to five microns in diameter? The answer is that all are equipped with Ch-S and negatively-charged surfaces of sulfates and EZ blankets (Figure 11). These properties are augmented by RBCs shedding Ch-S as they enter from the arteriole (left), giving the narrowing vessel an additional local negative charge, relative to the venule ahead (right). This can produce a weak battery, tending to propel the RBCs forward.
Figure 11: Robert M. Davidson and Stephanie Seneff, “The Initial Common Pathway of Inflammation, Disease, and Sudden Death,” Entropy 2012, 14, 1399-1442.
We know that blood is closely regulated by many organs, especially the liver and kidneys, which first detoxify and then excrete foreign bodies and chemicals. We can now additionally explain maintenance of membrane potentials and surfaces necessary for rapid O2 and CO2 gas diffusion by well-sulfated glycocalyx and EZ blankets.
Dr. Pollack has reported that imposing electric fields reorients water molecules and completely disrupts EZ water domains. For any regional electric field, the boomerang-shaped water molecules align so the oxygen points to the positive pole and the two hydrogens point to the minus pole.
If the EZ water blankets are an essential part of nerve conduction, as several of us have speculated, this may be a major reason alternating current (AC) electric shocks have such a profoundly disruptive effect on mammals—they erase the EZ water blankets within the alignment of current. This theory also can explain how death follows from electrocution. Conversely, the traditional healing treatment of both light and infrared possibly rebuilds and energizes EZ domains, and may provide an explanation for restoration of immune function and other healing effects associated with their therapeutic use.
We know that disruptions to surface tension will alter protein shapes, and increases in ST will prevent blood flow in small tubes (recall the mercury example). Theoretically, it is possible that under very high ST, blood will exit both ends of the capillaries, leading to a cascade of clotting events and death from heart attack, heart failure or stroke.
Diminishing the zeta potential will directly remove the charges that sustain the blood flow and maintain cells as a colloidal suspension.
Davidson and Seneff1 devote many pages to what they call exogenous interfacial water stressors (EIWS), unusual salts and surfactants that raise the ST. A considerable amount of fairly ancient research has gone into the physics of ST versus salts in in vitro lab tests. They summarize: to the surprise of no wastewater treatment engineer, almost no salt combination ruins both ST and zeta potential as quickly at low concentrations as soluble aluminum, Al+3 (Figure 12).
Figure 12: Riddick, T. Control of Colloid Stability through Zeta Potential (with a Closing Chapter on Its Relationship to Cardiovascular Disease); Livingston Pub. Co., Wynnewood, PA, USA, 1968.
Human gut and skin have developed in a world where aluminum is the third most common element, yet no known biological use or tolerance for aluminum has been found. Mammals have numerous systems to prevent its entrance to the blood or lymph. So, how could aluminum penetrate into our blood? Consider these steps:
• Some pesticide residues are known to selectively kill gut microbes.
• A healthy microbiome keeps the gut lining properly sealed.
• Dysbiosis produces toxins that destroy the gut lining.
• Aluminum is a common ingredient in some baking powders and also in refined salt.
• Glyphosate is now routinely sprayed on grains just prior to harvest.
• An imbalance results in both amino acids and the living gut microbiome.
• The liver’s CP450 detoxification pathways are inhibited.
• Wheat, as baked flour, contains much gluten, previously thought harmless.
• Leaky gut permits both aluminum and gluten to directly enter the blood.
• Aluminum stresses the immune system to produce antibodies.
• Antibodies to gluten constitute “gluten intolerance,” now an “idiopathic” epidemic.7
How else could soluble aluminum get directly into the blood? It gets there as a vaccine adjuvant (adjuvant means “helper”)!
Without aluminum in a vaccine, the body just breaks down and eliminates foreign proteins and nucleic acids—antibodies are never made. This ruins the whole vaccine story, which claims that vaccines are effective because they produce antibodies. So a “helper” is “needed.”
One flaw in certain vaccine trials is that subject reactions to the full vaccine are compared to reactions to just the aluminum adjuvant sans the antigens. In this way, all the negative reactions in trials are never blamed on the vaccine.
Dr. Viera Scheibner monitored infant breathing patterns for many weeks.8 Shallow, rapid breathing (hypopnea) indicates a stressed condition, which SIDS researchers had previously called “false alarms.” Instead, she found, following vaccine injections, such alarm reactions increased within one to two days, with a period of resistance developing at five to seven days, and the child appearing to recover. This was followed by exhaustion around day sixteen, with worsening stress evident. The forty-one babies that died at various points during this process were classed as SIDS, as these stressors were categorized as insignificant.
The late physician Andrew Moulden9 believed that vaccinations cause mini-strokes, and the common aluminum adjuvants explain why, especially as aluminum serves to collapse both zeta potential and EZ water blankets, and also acts as a neuro-toxin.4
CONCLUSIONS AND HEALTHY RECOMENDATIONS
Under no circumstances should aluminum in any concentration be allowed to pass the natural barriers of skin and digestion. Maintain healthy membranes with adequate organic sulfur from foods (egg yolks, meats, seafood and vegetables from the onion and brassica families), adequate zinc from foods (red meat, shellfish, liver) and sunlight. Healthy animal fats can provide needed fatty acids for nerve repair. Avoid all exposure to surfactants such as artificial detergents, sodium lauryl sulfate and sodium lauryl ether sulfate. These are anionic surfactants; that is, they have a negative charge in solution. Instead, use animal or vegetable fat-derived soaps. Diets of microbiome renewal sources from fermented foods can support a healthy gut lining.
1. Robert M. Davidson, and Stephanie Seneff, “The Initial Common Pathway of Inflammation,
Disease, and Sudden Death,” Entropy 2012, 14, 1399-1442.
2. Gerald H. Pollack, faculty.washington.edu/ghp/research-themes/water-science/.
3. Robert M. Davidson, Ann Lauritzen and Stephanie Seneff, “Biological Water Dynamics
and Entropy: A Biophysical Origin of Cancer and Other Diseases” Entropy 2013, 15,
4. CA Shaw, S Seneff, SD Kette, L Tomljenovic, JW Oller Jr., and RM Davidson. “Aluminum-
Induced Entropy in Biological Systems: Implications for Neurological Disease.” Journal
of Toxicology 2014: Article ID 491316.
5. Stephanie Seneff, Wise Traditions, WAPF, Health Topics, Oct 2013
6. Bleau, G.; Lalumiure, G.; Chapdelaine, A.; Roberts, K. Red cell surface structure. Stabilization
by cholesterol sulfate as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy. Biochim.
Biophys. Acta 1975, 375, 220–223.
8. Scheibner, V. Vaccination: One Hundred Years of Orthodox Research Shows that Vaccines
Represent a Medical Assault on the Immune System. New Atlantean Press. 1993, cited
in: people. csail.mit.edu/seneff/Entropy/Entropy1_downloaded.pdf.
9. Interview with Dr. Andrew Moulden. vactruth.com/2009/07/21/dr-andrew-mouldeninterview-
VOCABULARY OF BIOPHYSICAL TERMS
Anion, anionic: (pron. an’-eye-on-ik) ion or molecule with negative charge.
Cation, cationic: (pron. cat’-eye-on-ik) ion or molecule with positive charge.
Coherent Domain: acting as a single entity, crystal or molecule in response to light or magnetic energy.
Density: grams per milliliter.
EIWS: Exogenous Interfacial Water Stressor “from outside” “at the protein-water interface” water “causing stress to the solubility/shape of proteins.”
Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS): an enzyme previously thought mainly to produce the signaling gas Nitric
Oxide (NO), now believed also to sulfate cholesterol in sunlight.
Glycocalyx: the outer fuzz on many cell membranes, projecting hydrophilic sulfate ends.
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs): sugar-protein chains forming outer membrane of cells.
Hydrophilic: water-loving, wets and attracts water cohesively.
Hydrophobic: water-fearing, mostly lipids which form no ionic bonds to water.
Idiopathic: disease with unknown cause.
Kosmotropes: ions which thicken or organize nearby dissolved proteins.
Lipoproteins: proteins attached to long-chain lipids
Lysosome: a cavity in most cells which digests damaged or foreign material for recycling.
Microbiome: the host of living microorganisms normally within your body providing many kinds of health help and balance.
Millivolts: 0.001 volts, electrical potential.
Monomeric: a single example unit, to be repeated as a polymer.
Zeta Potential: the charge, usually in millivolts on a colloidal body, droplet, cell or particle that may prevent collision with neighboring bodies.
This article appeared in Wise Traditions in Food, Farming and the Healing Arts, the quarterly journal of the Weston A. Price Foundation, Winter 2015