References: Sugar Alert! Why Refined Sweeteners are Bad for You
By the Weston A. Price Foundation for Wise Traditions in Food, Farming and the Healing Arts.
The following books address many of the issues discussed in Sugar Alert!
Pure, White and Deadly. How Sugar is Killing Us and What We Can Do to Stop It by John Yudkin. (originally published in the U.K under this title in 1972 by Davis-Poynter; in the U.S. in 1972 by Peter H. Wyden as Sweet and Dangerous; expanded edition in 1986 by Viking, U.K.; republished in 2012 and 2013 in U.S. by Penguin Books with introduction by Robert Lustig, MD.)
Nourishing Traditions by Sally Fallon and Mary G. Enig. 2001. New Trends Publishing.
Fat Chance: Beating the Odds Against Sugar, Processed Food, Obesity, and Disease by Robert Lustig, MD. 2013. Hudson Street Press.
Suicide by Sugar: A Startling Look at Our #1 National Addiction by Nancy Appleton and G.N. Jacobs. 2009.Square One Publishers, Garden City Park NJ. 2008.
–141 Reasons Sugar Ruins Your Health. Excerpted from Suicide by Sugar (with
Good Calories, Bad Calories. Fats.Carbs, and the Controversial Science of Diet and Health by Gary Taubes.2008 Anchor Books.
The Sugar Fix: The High-Fructose Fallout That Is Making You Fat and Sick. By Robert J. Johnson.2009. New York: Pocket Books (Simon and Schuster).
REFERENCES to TEXT
• Sugar contains no nutrients.
-Pennington J. Bowes & Church’s Food Values of Portions commonly used. 19th edition.Lippincott Publishers. 2010. p. 188
-SELFNutrition Data. Know What You Eat. Sugars, Granulated. http://bit.ly/10u7tw5
• Dr. Weston A. Price referred to sugar as a “displacing food of modern commerce,” because it was an empty food that replaced the nutrient-dense foodsof native peoples.
-Price WA. Nutrition and Physical Degeneration.Price-Pottenger Nutrition Foundation. 2008.
• Sugar was introduced into European populations in the 1500s and use of sugar and other refined sweeteners has greatly increased in modern times.
-Potential role of sugar (fructose) in the epidemic of hypertension, obesity and the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr.October 2007 86(4): 899-906.http://bit.ly/1ORP4jS
• What is “added sugar?”
-Empty Calories. What are added sugars? USDA Choose My Plate.gov.http://1.usa.gov/1EdkHdt
• “Added sugar” increased by more than 30 percent over three decades.
-Obesity Society. U.S. Adult Consumption of Added Sugars Increased by More Than 30% Over Three Decades Cap and Trade Policy for Added Sugars Shown a Promising Strategy to Reduce Consumption, Improve Health. Am J Pub Health; Nov 3 2014. http://tosconnect.obesity.org/Go.aspx?c=Custom404&url=%2fnews-center%2fus-adult-consumption-of-added-sugars-increased-by-more-than-30-over-three-decades.htm
• “Added sugar” in the American Diet
-FDA Dockets 4 Aug 1998. 99P-2630/ CP 1. http://1.usa.gov/1KlSSmJ
CSPI petition to the FDA to require “Nutrition Facts” labels to disclose the quantity of added sugars present in packaged foods and to set a Daily reference Value for refined sugars added to foods. (good content on “added sugars.”)
-Ervin RB, Ogden CL. Consumption of Added Sugars among U.S. Adults, 2005-2010. NCHS Data Brief. CDC.122, May 2013. http://1.usa.gov/1FRLm47
• Leading source of “added sugar” in American Diet is soda.
-Reedy J, Krebs-Smith SM. Dietary Sources of Energy, Solid Fats, and Added Sugars Among Children and Adolescents in the United States. J Am Diet Assoc. 2010; 110(10): 1477-1484. PMCID: PMC3428130
• Today consumption of sugar is around one hundred eighty pounds per person per year, or about one-half pound (one cup) of sugar per day.
-Mercola J. Fructose: This Addictive Commonly Used Food Feeds Cancer Cells,
Triggers Weight Grain and Promotes Premature Aging. 20 apr 2010.http://bit.ly/19sGqlC
-Dean C. Sugar: Pleasure or Poison. Consumer Health Organizaton of Canada.Oct1992;15(8).
• Most of the increase in sugar consumption since 1975 has been in the form of high fructose corn syrup.
-Bray GA et al. Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 2004; 75(4) 537-548.PMID: 15051594
• Obesity rates since 1890.
–The Sugar Fix: The High-Fructose Fallout That Is Making You Fat and Sick. By Robert J. Johnson. 2009. Pocket Books. p. 4-5.
• High sugar diet damaging for growing children.
-DeBoer MD et al. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Weight Gain in 2- to 5-Year-Old Children.
Pediatrics.online 5 aug2013.PMC3876761
( Five-year-olds (all born in 2001) who drink one sugar-sweetened sodas, sports drinks or juices every day were 43 percent more likely to be obese that those who drank these beverages less often. )
-Kosova E et al. The Relationships between Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake and Cardiometabolic Markers in Young Children. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2013 Feb;113(2):219-27. PMID: 23351625
• Causes of hypoglycemia and symptoms of low blood sugar.
-Davis, A. Let’s Have Healthy Children. 1972. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 57-59.
• There are many causes and types of diabetes, but a fundamental factor is eating too much sugar, which immediate raises blood sugar levels.
-Basu S et al. The Relationship of Sugar to Population-Level Diabetes Prevalence: An Econometric
Analysis of Repeated Cross-Sectional Da PLOS One. 2013. PMID: 23460912http://bit.ly/1zjpVXy
• Side effects of insulin
-Lebovitz HE. Insulin: Potential Negative Consequences of Early Routine Use in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2011; 34:S225. PMID: 21525460 http://bit.ly/1E7Bspn
-Insulin Side Effects. Drug.com. http://bit.ly/1GWIcOe
DISEASES CAUSED BY SUGAR
For an extended list of adverse medical conditions related to sugar consumption,
1) “141 Reasons Sugar Ruins Your Health.” Excerpted from Suicide by Sugar (with references). http://bit.ly/1DPw2ij. nancyappleton.com
2) “The 76 Dangers of Sugar to Your Health.” Mercola.com http://bit.ly/19sGqlC
-Lenoir M et al. Intense Sweetness Surpasses Cocaine Reward. PLOS One.Open Access.
1 aug 2007. PMID: 17668074
-Spangler R. et al. Opiate-like effects of sugar on gene expression in reward areas
of the rat brain. Mol Brain Res 2004: 124 (2): 134-142.PMID: 15135221
ADHD, Hyperactivity. Aggressive Behavior
-Mercola J. What’s Causing the Rise in ADHD.? Mercola.com. http://bit.ly/1cq933L
-Onusic, SP. Violent Behavior: A Solution in Plain Sight. Wise Traditions in Food, Farming and the Healing Arts.2013; 14(1). 19-25. http://bit.ly/1HdGX9p( see extensive reference section)
-Prinz R, Roberts W. Dietary correlates of hyperactive behavior in children. J Consult Clin Psych 1980; 48: 760-769.PMID: 7440832
ADRENAL GLAND FATIGUE
-Barron J. The Endocrine System: The Adrenal Glands. Baseline of Health Foundation.
26 jul 2010. http://bit.ly/1EOOjBA
-Pope S. Six little known signs of Adrenal Fatigue. The Healthy Home Economist
-Berentzen NE et al.Associations of sugar-containing beverages with asthma prevalence in 11-year-old children: the PIAMA birth cohort.Eur J Clin Nutr. 2015 Mar;69(3):303-8. PMID: 25117998.
(This study indicates that high consumption of 100% fruit juice and total SCBs is associated with increased asthma risk in children. The positive association between consumption of 100% fruit juice and asthma is an unexpected finding that needs confirmation in future studies.)
-Cohen L et al. Association of Sweetened Beverage Intake with Incident Hypertension. J Gen Intern Med. 2012 Sep; 27(9): 1127–1134.PMC3515007
-“It has been known since the 1960’s that fructose elevates flood sugar more than an equivalent amount of glucose, a phenomenon called fructose-induced hypertension.” G. Taubes, Good Calories, Bad Calories, p 201.
-Wilson L. Brain Food. Dr. Wilson.com. Jan 2013. http://bit.ly/1zJdmWx
-Armstrong BK, Doll R. 1975. Environmental Factors and Cancer incidence in Different Countries with Special References to Dietary Practices. International Journal of Cancer 15:617-31PMID: 1140864
– Michaud D. Dietary Sugar, Glycemic Load, and Pancreatic Cancer Risk in a Prospective Study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002 ;94(17):1293-300.PMID: 12208894
-Quillan P. Cancer’s Sweet Tooth.Nutrition Science News. Reprinted at Mercola.com
http://www.mercola.com/article/sugar/sugar_cancer.htm (this article lists 20 citations pertaining to the topic).
-Soffritti M. et al. Life-Span Exposure to Low Doses of Aspartame Beginning during Prenatal Life Increases Cancer Effects in Rats. Environmental Health Perspectives (sept) 2007; 115(9) 1293-1297
CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE, DYLIPIDEMIA
-Albrink M,Ullrich IH. Interaction of Dietary Sucrose and Fiber on Serum Lipids in Healthy Young Men Fed High Carbohydrate Diets. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1986;43:419.PMID: 3006471
-Fried S K, Rao SP. Sugars, hypertriglyceridemia and cardiovascular disease. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 78:873S-880s, 2003PMID: 14522752
-Reiser S. Effects of Dietary Sugars on Metabolic Risk Factors Associated with Heart Disease. Nutritional Health. 1985;203_216PMID: 3906452
-Scanto S,Yudkin J. The Effect of Dietary Sucrose on Blood Lipids, Serum Insulin, Platelet Adhesiveness and Body Weight in Human Volunteers, Postgraduate Medicine Journal. 1969;45:602-607.
-Yudkin J. Sugar Consumption and Myocardial Infarction. Lancet. Feb 6, 1971; 297(7693): 296-297; and Yudin J et al. Sugar Intake and Myocardial Infarction. Am J, Clin Nutr. 1967 20(5): 503-206 http://bit.ly/1H4nBar
CHRONIC FATIGUE SYNDROME
-Myers W. Fighting Chronic Fatigue Syndrome with a Natural Diet. Everyday Health
DENTAL CARIES and PERIODONTAL DISEASE
-Glinsmann WH et al. Report from FDA’s Sugars Task Force, 1986.Evaluation of Health Aspects of Sugar Contained in Carbohydrate Sweeteners. J Nutr. 1986; 1169(11S): 39.
-Guyenet S. Dr. Mellanby’s Tooth Decay Reversal Diet. Whole Health Source 11Dec 2010. http://bit.ly/1P3CEWf.
-Onusic SP. Great Pioneers in Nutrition of the Twentieth Century. Wise Traditions in Food, Farming and the Healing Arts. Spring. 2015. 48-49.
-Sheiham A. Dietary effects on dental diseases. Public Health Nutr 2001 Apr; 4(@B) 569-91. PMID: 11683551
Tinaff N, Palmer CA.Dietary determinants of dental caries and dietary recommendations for preschool children. J Public Health Dent. 2000 Summer;60(3):197-206; PMID: 11109219
-Touger-Decker R and Van Loveren CL. Sugars and Dental Caries. Am J Clin Nutr.Oct 2003; 78: 881-892.
Yabao RN et al. Prevalence of dental caries and sugar consumption among 6–12-y-old schoolchildren in La Trinidad, Benguet, Philippines. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005;59:1429-1438. http://bit.ly/1F826oQ
-Deans E. Could Soda and Sugar Be Causing Your Depression? Fructose malabsorption, a very common condition with surprising correlates. Psychology Today. 24 May 2011.http://bit.ly/1dGrkyt
-Eastman Q. High-fructose diet in adolescence may exacerbate depressive-like behavior. 19 nov 2014. Emory News Center. http://bit.ly/1EPuiLc
-Meldrum DR. et al. Lifestyle and metabolic approaches to maximizing erectile and vascular health.Int J Impot Res. 2012 mar-apr; 24(2) : 61-8. doi: 10.1038/ijir.2011.51.
-Meldrum DR et al. A multifacteted approach to maximize erectile function and vascular health. FertilSteril. 2010 Dec;94(7):2514-20. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2010.04.026.
-Meldrum DR,Gambone JC. Survival of the Firmest.2011. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.
-Appleton N. Lick the Sugar Habit. Allergies. New York. Avery Penguin Putnam. 1988
-Szucs EF et al.The effects of aspartame on mast cellsand basophils. Food ChemToxicol 1986, 24:171–174. 2420690PMID: 2420690
-Forouzesh S. High Fructose Corn Syrup and Gout. ArthritisCare.com. 20apr 2010.
-Koulouris S. Sugar, Fructose, High Fructose Corn Syrup and Gout.Gout and You.Gout and You.http://bit.ly/1DP9qyC
-Kelsay J., et al. Diets High in Glucose or Sucrose and Young Women. Am. Jnl. Clin.Nutr. 1974;27:926-936. PMID: 441281
-Sanders L, Hofeldt F. Refined carbohydrates as a contributing factor in reactive hypoglycemia. Southern Med J 1982; 75: 1972-1975.PMID: 7123327
-Thomas BJ et al. Relation of Habitual Diet to Fasting Plasma Insulin Concentration and the Insulin Response to Oral Glucose, Human Nutrition Clinical Nutrition. 1983; 36C(1):49-51.PMID: 7042656
IMMUNITY, INFECTION and INFLAMMATION
-Brown K et al. Diet-induced dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota and the effects on immunity and disease. Nutrients. 2012, 4:1095–1119PMC3448089.
-Hy Y et al. Sugar-sweetened soda consumption and risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Sep;100(3):959-67. PMID 25030783.
(Regular consumption of sugar-sweetened soda is associated with increased risk of rheumatoid arthritis on women, independent of other dietary and lifestyle factors.)
-Ringsdorf W et al. Sucrose, Neutrophilic Phagocytosis and Resistance to Disease, Dent Surv. 1976;52(12):46-48.PMID: 1069679
-Sanchez A et al.Role of sugars in human neutrophilic phagocytosis. Am J Clin Nutr 1973, 26:1180–1184.
-SekirovI et al. Gut microbiota in health and disease. Am. Physiol. Soc. 2010;90:859–904PMID: 20664075
-Sorensen LB et al. Effect of sucrose on inflammatory markers in overweight humans. Am J Clin Nutr
-Barton-Schuster D. Sugar May Contribute to infertility. Natural Fertility Info.
-Wellness Mama. How to Get Pregnant Naturally.http://bit.ly/1bep8wz
INSULIN LEVELS AND INSULIN RESISTANCE
-Cowan T. Treating Diabetes: Practical Advice for Combatting a Modern Epidemic. Wise Traditions in Food, Farming and the Healing Arts.Winter 2003.http://bit.ly/1dG4w1Y
-“…given sufficient time, high fructose diets can induce high insulin levels, high blood sugar, and insulin resistance even though in the short term fructose has little effect on either blood sugar or insulin and so a very low glycemic index.” Good Calories, Bad Calories. G. Taubes, p. 200-201.
Ferland A. et al. Is Aspartame Really Safer in Reducing the Risk of Hypoglycemia During Exercise in Patients With Type 2 diabetes? Diabetes Care.Jul 2007; 30(7 e59).doi: 10.2337/dc06-1888.
(Aspartame raises insulin levels as much as sugar.)
-Lewis GF, Steiner G. Acute Effects of Insulin in the Control of VLDL Production in Humans. Implications for the insulin-resistant State.Diabetes Care.1996 ;19(4):390-3PMID: 8729170
-Yoshida M et al. Surrogate markers of insulin resistance are associated with consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks and fruit juice in middle and older-aged adults. J Nutr. 2007 Sep;137(9):2121-7. http://jn.nutrition.org/content/137/9/2121.long.PMID: 17709452
Research supports a causal role of sugar in several kidney disease risk factors. Sugar may also harm the kidney via other mechanisms. There is no evidence that sucrose is any safer for the kidney than high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) because both are similar in composition.
-Blacklock N J. Sucrose and Idiopathic Renal Stone. Nutrition and Health.1987;5(1-2):9. PMID: 3313140
-Curhan G et al. Beverage Use and Risk for Kidney Stones in Women. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1998:28:534-340.PMID: 9518397
-Johnson RJ et al.Potential role of sugar (fructose) in the epidemic of hypertension, obesity and the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr.2007 86(4): 899-906.PMID: 17921363
-Karalius VP, Shoham DA. Dietary sugar and artificial sweetener intake and chronic kidney disease: a review. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2013 Mar;20(2):157-64. PMID 2343975
FATTY LIVER DISEASE(NASH)
-Goran MI et al. Genetic-related and carbohydrate-related factors affecting liver fat accumulation. Curr
OpinClinNutrMetab Care. 2012 Jul;15(4):392-6. PMID 22617559
-Neuschwander-Tetri BA. Carbohydrate intake and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
CurrOpinClinNutrMetab Care.2013 Jul ; (4):446-52. PMID: 23657151
-O’Sullivan TA et al. Lower fructose intake may help protect against development of nonalcoholic fatty
liver in adolescents with obesity. J Pediatr GastroenterolNutr. 2014 May;58(5):624-31. PMID 24345826.
-Couzy, F., et al. Nutritional Implications of the Interaction Minerals. Progressive Food and Nutrition
Science 17;1933:65-87. PMID: 8502756
-Drewnowski A,Darmon N. The economics of obesity: dietary energy density and energy cost. Am J
Clin Nutr. July 2005 vol. 82 no. 1 265S-273S.PMID 16002835.
-Enwonwu CO. Interface of malnutrition and periodontal diseases. Am J Clin Nutr 1995; 61 supp: 430S-6S. PMID: 7530902
-Fields M. et al. Effect of Copper Deficiency on Metabolism and Mortality in Rats Fed Sucrose or Starch
Diets, Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1983;113:1335-1345. PMID: 6345733
-Kozlovsky A et al. Effects of Diets High in Simple Sugars on Urinary Chromium Losses.Metabolism.
June 1986;35:515_518.PMID: 3713513
-Lemann J. Evidence that Glucose Ingestion Inhibits Net Renal Tubular Reabsorption of Calcium and
Magnesium.Journal of Clinical Nutrition.1976 ;70:236-245.
-Rajeshwari R et al. Secular Trends in Children’s Sweetened-beverage Consumption (1973 to 1994): The
Bogalusa Heart Study. J Am Diet Assoc. 2005; 105(2): 208-214.PMID: 15668676
-Basciano H et al. Fructose, insulin resistance, and metabolic dyslipidemia.NutrMetab (Lond). 2005 Feb 21;2(1):5 PMC552336/
-Cirillo P et al. Uric Acid, the Metabolic Syndrome and Renal Disease JASN 2006 17(12) suppl 3: S165-S168. PMID: 17130256
-Collison KS et al. Gender Dimorphism in Aspartame-Induced Impairment of Spatial Cognition and Insulin. 2012 Volume 7(4): e31570 PMID: 22509243
(Exposed to aspartame in utero and through life male aspartame-fed mice exhibited weight gain, elevated fasting glucose levels and decreased insulin sensitivity compared to control group.)
-Perez-Pozo, SE et al. Excessive fructose intake induces the features of metabolic syndrome in healthy adult men: role of uric acid in the hypertensive response. International Journal of Obesity 2010;34: 454–461. PMID: 20029377
-Rayssiguier Y et al. High fructose consumption combined with low dietary magnesium intake may increase the incidence of the metabolic syndrome by inducing inflammation. Magnes Res. 2006 Dec;19(4):237-43. PMID: 17402291
-Schulze M B et al. Sugar-sweetened beverages, weight gain, and incidence of type 2 diabetes in young and middle-aged women. JAMA 292:927-934. PMID: 15328324
ALTERATION OF “FEEL GOOD” NEUROTRANSMITTERS: dopamine, GABA, endorphins, serotonin and others
-Bello NT et al. Repeated sucrose access influences dopamine D2 receptor density in the striatum. NeuroReport 13 (2002) 1575–1578. PMID: 12218708
– Des Maisons K. The Sugar Addict’s Total Recovery Program. 2000.Ballantine Books, 22-25.31-36..
(Sugar usually induces a rise in serotonin after ingestion but people who are sugar-sensitive have naturally low levels of serotonin and beta endorphins.)
-Wang C et al. Glucose inhibits GABA release by pancreatic beta-cells through an increase in GABA shunt activity. Am J PhysiolEndocrinolMetab. 2006 Mar;290(3):E494-9. PMID 16249254.
– Wang GJ et al. Peripheral insulin resistance affects brain dopaminergic signaling after glucose ingestion. J Nucl Med. 2013 54(Sup 2):29.
OBESITY AND RUBBER TIRE SYNDROME (central adiposity, beer belly, beer gut)
There are many studies devoted to this topic.
-Bray GA, etal.Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of
obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79(4):537–543.PMID: 15051594
-Keen H. et al. Nutrient Intake, Adiposity and Diabetes. Brit Med J. 1989; 1: 655-658.PMC1598272
-Appleton N. Lick the Sugar Habit. New York. Avery Penguin Putnam. 1988. p.22- 23
-Lemann J. Evidence that Glucose Ingestion Inhibits Net Renal Tubular Reabsorption of Calcium and
Magnesium.Am J Clin Nutr.1976; 70: 236-245.PMID: 5444345
-Mercola J. Sweet Deception. Why Splenda, NutraSweet, and the FDA May Be Hazardous To Your
Health. Thomas Nelson. 2006. p.12
-Tjiiderhane L,Larmas M. High Sucrose Diet Decreases the Mechanical Strength of Bones in Growing Rats.Am JClinNutr.1998; 128: 1807-181.PMID: 9772153
PANCREATIC STRESS, PANCREATIC CANCER
-Cleave TL, Campbell GD. Diabetes, Coronary Thrombosis and the Saccharine Disease. 1966. Bristol: John Wright and Sons.(quoted in Taubes, G. 2008: pg 114-115).
-Kawahito S et al. Problems associated with glucose toxicity: Role of hyperglycemia-induced oxidative
stress. World J Gastroenterol; 2009; 15(33). PMC2738809.
-Larsson SC et al. Consumption of sugar and sugar-sweetened foods and the risk of pancreatic cancer in a
prospective study. Am J Clin Nutr November 2006 vol. 84 no. 5 1171-1176. PMID 17093171
-Appleton, N, Jacobs GN. Suicide by Sugar: A Startling Look at Our #1 National Addiction.
2009. Square One Publishers, Garden City Park NJ. 2008. 53-56
-Gkogkolou P, Bohn M. Advanced glycation end products. Key Players in skin aging?
Dermatoendorinol 2012; 4(3): 259-250. PMC3583887
-Lee AT, Cerami A. The Role of Glycation in Aging.Annals NY Acad Sci. 1992; 663: 63-70.PMID: 1749374
-Mercola J. Avoid Sugar to Help Slow Aging. Mercola.com. 22 feb 2012. http://bit.ly/S3Nf84.
INCREASED STOMACH ACIDITY, GASTRITIS, ULCER
-Cleve TL. The Saccharine Disease. 1974. John Wright & Sons Limited. (Peptic Ulcer, chapter 10: parts 1 and 2). http://bit.ly/1GWZRVP (book online)
-Cornee J et al. A Case-control Study of Gastric Cancer and Nutritional Factors in Marseille, France, EurJEpidem. 1995;11(1): 55-65. PMID 7489774
-Yudkin J. Pure, White and Deadly (2012) “The link between sugar and dyspepsia.”169-171, 133-138.
-CDC. Energy drink consumption and its association with sleep problems among U.S. service members on a combat deployment – Afghanistan, 2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2012 Nov 9;61(44):895-8. PMID 23134972
-Firouzi S et al. Sleep habits, food intake, and physical activity levels in normal and overweight and obese
Malaysian children.Obes Res ClinPract 2014 8(1)e 70-8. 2458579.
-Katagiri R et al. Low intake of vegetables, high intake of confectionary, and unhealthy eating habits are associated with poor sleep quality among middle-aged female Japanese workers. J Occup Health. 2014;56(5):359-68.PMID 2516826.
-Kieldsen JS et al. Short sleep duration and large variability in sleep duration are independently associated
with dietary risk factors for obesity in Danish school children. Int J Obes (Lond). 2014 Jan;38(1):32-9. PMID 23924757.
-Matthews KA et al. Sleep duration and insulin resistance in healthy black and white adolescents. Sleep. 2012; 35(10): 1353-8. PMID 23024433
HIGH TRIGLYCERIDE LEVELS
-Basciano H et al. Fructose, insulin resistance, and metabolic dyslipidemia.NutrMetab (Lond). 2005 Feb
-Schaefer EJ. Et al Dietary Fructose and Glucose Differentially Affect Lipid and Glucose homeostasis.Jun.
2009 J Nutr. 139(6): 1257S–1262S..PMID 19403705
ELEVATED URIC ACID LEVELS
-Gagliardi AC, et al. Uric acid: a marker of increased cardiovascular risk. Atherosclerosis. 2009;202(1):11–
17. PMID: 18585721
-Johnson RJ. The Sugar Fix: The High-Fructose Fallout That Is Making You Fat and Sick. 2009. Pocket
-Wiley. Increased Dietary Fructose Linked to Elevated Uric Acid Levels and Lower Liver Energy Stores.
Press Release. 12 sept 2012. http://bit.ly/1zGquM6
COMPROMISED WOUND HEALING
-The role of glucose in wound healing. Advanced Tissue. 9 Oct 2014. http://bit.ly/1F2CiKW
– Wolters Kluwer Health: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. High blood sugar levels linked to increased wound complications after surgery. ScienceDaily. 1 Oct 2013. http://bit.ly/1FLudJd
• INDUSTRIAL SWEETENERS AND NONNUTRITIVE SWEETNERS (ARTIFICAL-SYNTHETIC)
Maslova E et al. Consumption of artificially-sweetened soft drinks in pregnancy and risk of child asthma and allergic rhinitis. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e57261. PMID: 23460835 ( Carbonated artificially-sweetened soft drinks were associated with registry-based asthma and self-reported allergic rhinitis, while early childhood outcomes were related to non-carbonated soft drinks. These results suggest that consumption of artificially-sweetened soft drinks during pregnancy may play a role in offspring allergic disease development.)
-Schernhammer ES et al. Consumption of artificial sweetener- and sugar-containing soda and risk of lymphoma and leukemia in men and women.Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Dec;96(6):1419-28. Epub 2012 Oct 24. PMID.23097267 .
(Consumption of aspartame related to lymphoma and leukemia cancers in both men and women. )
-Suez J et al Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiata. Nature. 2014. PMID 24231862.
-Mercola J. Shocking! The “Tequila” Sweetener Agave is Far Worse than High Fructose Corn Syrup. Mercola.com. 30 Mar 2010. http://bit.ly/1KIhNSo
-Morell SF and Nagel R. The Lowdown on High Fructose Corn Syrup and Agave “Nectar.”Wise Traditions in Food, Farming and the Healing Arts.Spring, 2009. 10(2)
PROCESSED FRUIT JUICES
-Cole CR et al. Consequences of Incomplete Carbohydrate Absorption From Fruit Juice Consumption in Infants. Arch PediatrAdolesc Med 1999:1098-1102. doi:10.1001/archpedi.153.10.1098.
(Fruit juice may cause stomach distress and restlessness in infants because of high levels of fructose and or sorbitol.)
-See Berentzen NE et al under “asthma” (This study indicates that high consumption of 100% fruit juice and total SCBs is associated with increased asthma risk in children. The positive association between consumption of 100% fruit juice and asthma is an unexpected finding that needs confirmation in future studies.)
-Humphries P et al. Direct and indirect cellular effects of aspartame on the brain.Eur J. Clin J Nut 2008; 62: 451-462.PMID: 17684524
(“Headaches, insomnia and seizures are some of the neurological and behavioral disturbances that have been encountered, and these may be accredited to changes in regional brain concentrations of catecholamines, which include norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine.”)
– Maher TJ and Wurtman RJ. Possible Neurological Effects of Aspartame, a widely used food additive.
Environ Health Perspect 1987; 75: 53-57. PMID: 3319565
-Mercola J et al. Sweet Deception: Why Splenda, NutraSweet, and the FDA May Be Hazardous to Your Health. 2006. Harper Collins Christian Publishing.
-Olney JW et al. Increasing brain tumor rates: is there a link to aspartame? J NeuropatholExp Neurol. 1996 Nov;55(11):1115-23. PMID: 8939194.
(Aspartame can cause headaches, seizures, brain cancer, nervous disorders and damaged vision.)
-Abou-Donia MB et al (2008). Splenda alters gut microflora and increases intestinal p-glycoprotein and cytochrome p-450 in male rats. J Toxicol Environ Health, Part A, 2008 71(21), 1415-1429.PMID: 18800291
-JiSayer. The Bitter Truth AboutSplenda. GreenMedInfo. 18 Jan2012. http://bit.ly/1jpO6dO.( Sucralose (splenda) reduced immunity, decreased red blood cells, caused problems with liver and kidneys, during pregnancy with low-birth-weight babies.)
-PepinoMY et al. Sucralose affects glycemic and hormonal responses to an oral glucose load. Diabetes Care 2013;36:2530-2535. PMID: 23633524..
(Sucralose caused increased blood sugar compared to controls in an oral glucose load in obese people who do not normally consumer nonnutritive sweeteners.)
-Schiffman SS, Rother KI. Sucralose, A Synthetic Organochlorine Sweetener: Overview of Biological Issues J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2013 Sep; 16(7): 399–451.PMC3856475.
(Sucralose alters the microbial composition with reduction in beneficial bacteria. It interferes with the two cytochrome P-450 isoezymes involved in detoxification. It is mutagenic at high concentrations.Cooking with it generates dioxins. It alters glucose, .insulin and glucagon like peptide,)
SUGAR ALCOHOLS (POLYOLS): XYLITOL, MANNITOL, ERTYRITOL and SORBITOL
“Cargill is one of the world’s leading producers of polyols. We offer a wide range of polyols…for use in many different chemical industry applications.” Cargill.com
-Baudier KM et al. Erythritol, a Non-Nutritive Sugar Alcohol Sweetener and the Main Component of Truvia®, Is a Palatable Ingested Insecticide. PLOS One. 4 June 2014/ 0098949.
-European Union. Xylitol.E 967.Possible application of gene technology. GMO
-Lina BA et al. Chronic Toxicity and carcinogenicity study of erythritol in rats. RegulToxicolPharmacol. 1996 Oct;24(2 Pt 2):S264-79.PMID 8933643.
(Frequent urination and increasing excretion of urinary calcium and citrate, total protein and other substances.Cecal enlargement and higher kidney weight was noted.)
-Polyols and Gastrointestinal Effect. Calorie Council Control. http://bit.ly/1EbKvFJ
-Pope S. Xylitol:Not as Sweet as It’s Cracked Up to be.The Healthy Home Economist.
-Simpson J. Negative Side Effects of Malitol. Livestrong.com. 14 Apr 2015. http://bit.ly/1GX4WdL
-Storey D et al. Gastrointestinal tolerance of erythritol and xylitol ingested in a liquid.
Eur J ClinCnutr, 2007;6193) 349-54 PMID: 16988647.
(Xylitol caused significant intestinal issues and watery feces compared to sucrose. At highest levels of erythritolintake there was a significant increase in nausea and borborygmi.)
-Tetzloff W et al. Tolerance to subchronic, high-dose ingestion of erythritol in human volunteers. RegulToxicolPharmacol. 1996 Oct;24(2 Pt 2):S286-95. PMID: 8933645
(As with the rats in the Lina study, urinary output was high, with a higher urinary osmolality, and calciumexretion was higher. Albumin, beta 2 microglobulin and N-acetyl-glucosaminidase were elevated.)
• NATURAL SWEETENERS
-Fallon S, Enig M. Nourishing Traditions: The Cookbook that Challenges PoliticallyCorrect Nutrition and the Diet Dictocrats. New Trends Publishing. 2001. 534-537.
-Natural Sweeteners Video, Sarah Pope. Weston A. Price Foundation. July 29, 2011
• DEALING WITH SUGAR CRAVINGS
-Albritton J. Zapping Sugar Cravings. Wise Traditions in Food, Farming and the Healing Arts.Winter 2010. http://www.westonaprice.org/health-topics/zapping-sugar-cravings/
-Appleton N. Jacobs GN. Suicide by Sugar: A Startling Look at Our #1 National Addiction. 2009. Square One Publishers, Garden City Park NJ. 2008. 109-110.
-DesMaisons K. The Sugar Addicts Total Recovery Program. 2000. Ballantine Publishing Company (Random House), New York.